|Chemical Abstract Number(CAS #)||
||EPA Method 8260 |
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.
|Use|| CHEM INT FOR ANTIOXIDANTS, DYES, PIGMENTS, GASOLINE GUM
INHIBITORS; IN VET MEDICINE FOR POULTRY; PHARMACEUTICAL
COUPLES WITH 2-NAPHTHOL TO FORM PIGMENT RED 1.
USED IN DIAZOTIZED FORM TO RETAIN THE FASTNESS OF DYES AFTER
USED TO PRODUCE AZO DYE ACID VIOLET 3.
USED TO PRODUCE AZO DYE ACID GREEN 20.
USED TO PRODUCE AZO DYE DIRECT YELLOW 44.
USED AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR PRODUCING P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE.
/4-nitroaniline is used as a corrosion inhibitor.
|Consumption Patterns|| 40% AS AN INT FOR ANTIOXIDANTS; 20% AS AN INT FOR GASOLINE GUM
INHIBITORS; 20% AS AN INT FOR DYES & PIGMENTS; 7% IN PHARMACEUTICAL &
VETERINARY USE; 13% IN MISC APPLICATIONS(1968).
|Apparent Color|| YELLOW MONOCLINIC NEEDLES ; BRIGHT YELLOW POWDER
|Odor|| Faint ammonia; slightly pungent ; Odorless
|Boiling Point|| 332 DEG C
|Melting Point|| 146 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 138.12
|Density|| 1.424 AT 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Sensitivity Data|| Eye Irritation Level: is mildly irritating to the eyes and may cause some corneal damage.
Dust: irritating to eyes, nose and throat; solid: irritating to skin & eyes
|Environmental Impact|| 4-Nitroaniline may be released to the environment from process and waste emissions
involved in its production or use as a chemical intermediate and through stack emissions from
hazardous waste incineration. If released to soil, 4-nitroaniline will undergo a covalent chemical
bonding with humic materials which can result in its chemical alteration to a latent form and
prevent leaching. Photodegradation may occur on soil surfaces exposed to sunlight. If released to
water, 4-nitroaniline will covalently bind with humic materials in the water column and sediments.
Photodegradation in the aquatic environment may be possible. Aquatic hydrolysis, volatilization
and bioconcentration are not environmentally important. Various biological screening tests
suggest that 4-nitroaniline is generally resistant to biodegradation. If released to the atmosphere,
4-nitroaniline will react rapidly (estimated half-life of 14 hours) with sunlight-produced hydroxyl
radicals. Humans will be primarily exposed to 4-nitroaniline by dermal contact or inhalation in
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: When released to soil, 4-nitroaniline will undergo a covalent
chemical binding with humic materials which can result in its chemical alteration to a latent form
and tight adsorption. When covalently bound in this latent form, significant leaching in soil
systems is not generally expected to occur. This covalent bonding proceeds in two steps; a rapid
and reversible binding followed by a slower and much less reversible reaction. Leaching in soil
may be possible prior to the occurrence of the slower binding reaction. 4-Nitroaniline on soil
surfaces exposed to sunlight may be susceptible to photodegradation. Various biological
screening tests suggest that 4-nitroaniline is generally resistant to biodegradation.
AQUATIC FATE: The half-life of 4-nitroaniline in the water column of the Rhine River has been
estimated to be 3.8 days based on water monitoring data collected near Lobith Netherlands . If
released to water, 4-nitroaniline will undergo chemical bonding with humic materials and clay in
the water column and in the sediment. 4-Nitroaniline near the water surface may be susceptible to
degradation by direct photolysis and photooxidation. Various biological screening tests suggest
that 4-nitroaniline is generally resistant to biodegradation. Aquatic hydrolysis, volatilization, and
bioconcentration are not environmentally important.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the ambient atmosphere, 4-nitroaniline will exist primarily
in the vapor phase, although a minority fraction can be expected to partition to atmospheric
particulates, based on its estimated vapor pressure of 0.00000155 mm Hg at 20 deg C(1,2,SRC).
Vapor-phase reaction with sunlight-produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 14 hours in
typical air) should rapidly remove 4-nitroaniline from the atmosphere. Direct photolysis may also
contribute to its atmospheric transformation. Physical removal of particulates containing adsorbed
4-nitroaniline may be accomplished via dry and wet deposition.
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: 4-Nitroaniline was detected at a concn of 1 ppb in water from the
Rhine River in the Netherlands, but was not detected in associated tapwater . A concentration
of 1 ppb 4-nitroaniline was identified in water taken from the Rhine River near Lobith,
EFFL: Raw wastewater collected from a US dye manufacturing plant on the Black River in July
1976 contained 270 ppb nitroaniline (isomers unspecified); the final treated effluent contained no
detectable levels of nitroaniline . 4-Nitroaniline was qualitatively detected in a stack effluent
from a hazardous waste incinerator .