SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 100027
CASRN 100-02-7
Synonyms4-Nitrophenol
p-Nitrophenol
Phenol, 4-nitro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 515.3
EPA Method 555
EPA Method 604
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8040
EPA Method 8151
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC6H5NO3

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use AS INDICATOR IN 0.1% ALCOHOL SOLN; PH RANGE: 5.6 COLORLESS, 7.6 YELLOW FUNGICIDE CHEM INTERMEDIATE FOR THE INSECTICIDES METHYL PARATHION & ETHYL PARATHION, AZO & SULFUR DYES, N-ACETYL-P-AMINOPHENOL; CHEM INTERMEDIATE FOR LEATHER PRESERVATIVES AS SUBSTRATE FOR ANALYSIS OF UDP-GLUCURONYL TRANSFERASE BACTERICIDE Leather treatment agent.
Consumption Patterns 87% AS A CHEM INTERMED FOR METHYL & ETHYL PARATHION; 13% IN OTHER APPLICATIONS (EST) (1971) /IN MANUFACTURE OF ETHYL AND METHYL PARATHIONS, 84%; N-ACETYL-P-AMINOPHENOL (APAP), 8%; MISC, INCL DYESTUFFS AND LEATHER TREATMENT, 8% CHEMICAL PROFILE: p-Nitrophenol. Acetaminophen (n-acetyl-p-aminophenol or APAP), 55%; exports, 35%; leather tanning, dyestuffs oxydianiline and miscellaneous uses, 10%. CHEMICAL PROFILE: p-Nitrophenol. Demand: 1986: 22 million lb; 1987: 23 million lb; 1991 /projected/: 25 million lb (Includes exports; imports are negligible).
Apparent Color COLORLESS TO SLIGHTLY YELLOW CRYSTALS ; YELLOW MONOCLINIC PRISMS FROM TOLUENE ; YELLOW TO BROWN SOLID
Odor Odorless
Boiling Point 279 DEG C (DECOMPOSES)
Melting Point 113-114 DEG C
Molecular Weight 139.11
Density 1.270 @ 20 DEG C/D
Odor Threshold Concentration 58.3 MG/L Detection in air: 2.3 mg/cu m Detection in water: 2.5 mg/l
Sensitivity Data Dust: irritating to eyes, nose & throat; solid: irritating to skin & eyes
Environmental Impact 4-Nitrophenol will be released to the environment in wastewater and as fugitive emissions during its production and use as a chemical intermediate primarily in the manufacture of parathion, methyl parathion and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol. It is also found in suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, originating mostly from secondary photochemical reactions in the air and partly from emissions of vehicular exhaust gas. When released on land, it will biodegrade with a half-life of approximately a day. If released in water, it will also primarily biodegrade with a half-life of approximately 1-8 days. Half-lives will be markedly shortened when the microorganisms are well acclimated. Half-lives will be much longer in marine waters. Photolysis may also be important in clear surface waters (half-lives 2-14 days); being somewhat faster when the water is acidic or contains nitrate or nitrite ions. Adsorption to sediment should be minor under most circumstances and little or no bioconcentration should take place. If 4-nitrophenol is released into the atmosphere, it will be predominately adsorbed to particulate matter or be in aerosols. It will be subject to gravitational settling and photolyze with a half-life that may range from hours to a week or more. Human exposure will be primarily from ambient air via inhalation. Agricultural works using parathion may be exposed to 4-nitrophenol dermally or via inhalation since it is both a degradation product and impurity in that pesticide.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on soil, 4-nitrophenol would not be expected to adsorb appreciably to soil except for some clays to which it will strongly bind. It will rapidly biodegrade, having a half-life of approximately 1 day in agricultural topsoil and 10 days in flooded soil. Should 4-nitrophenol leach into the subsoil, its biodegradation half-life is much longer, 40 days in one report under aerobic conditions and longer still under anaerobic conditions. However, no reports could be found concerning its detection in groundwater. When radiolabeled 4-nitrophenol was incubated in a laboratory terrestrial ecosystem, the label was found largely in the top 5 cm of soil after 26 days . After 30 days in another terrestrial ecosystem, 79.1% of the (14)C resided in soil and plants and 19.1% had been transformed to (14)CO2(2,SRC). AQUATIC FATE: If released into water one would not expect 4-nitrophenol to sorb appreciably to sediment because of its low Koc, unless the sediment contains appreciable amounts of montmorillonite or other clay to which 4-nitrophenol forms chemical bonds. Both in the water and sediment, biodegradation will be the predominant loss mechanism. Half-lives which have been reported are 1-8 days. Half-lives decrease markedly when the microbial populations are acclimated and the 4-nitrophenol may then completely degrade in under a day. Degradation is much slower in marine systems than in freshwater ones with half-lives of 1-3 yr being reported in water from sites in Pensacola Bay, FL. The presence of sediment in the water markedly increased the degradation rate as the half-lives in eco-cores from the same sites ranged 13-20 days. No degradation rates have been reported for freshwater sediment. In estuarine sediment suspensions, 7 and 19% mineralization occurred in 10 days under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The mean half-life predicted for 4-nitrophenol by a non-steady-state equilibrium model is 7.7 days . The model predicts that 94.6% of the 4-nitrophenol will partition into the water and 4.44% into the sediment . Photolysis may also be important in clear surface waters (half-lives 2-14 days); being somewhat faster when the water is acidic or contains nitrate or nitrite ions. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: 4-Nitrophenol released to the atmosphere will most likely be in suspended particulate matter or aerosols. It will be subject to gravitational settling and photolysis. The photolysis half-life will depend on the amount of sunlight, pH and dissolved nitrate in the aerosol water and the nature of the particulate matter on which the 4-nitrophenol is adsorbed. Half-lives may range from hours to a week or more.
Drinking Water Impact SURFACE WATER: Ambient water concentrations reported in the USEPA's STORET data base, 1980-82 (807 samples) 0.0% pos . Not detected in the Lake Erie or Lake Michigan basin . EFFL: Effluent concentrations reported in the USEPA's STORET data base, 1980-1982 (1322 samples) 3.3% pos . Norway - 30 samples representing polluted fjord areas as well as effluent from municipal treatment plants, refineries, petrochemical and metallurgic industries: 0% pos at a 5 ppb limit of quantitation . Detected in the treated effluents of the following industries (industry (concn)): electrical/electronic components (< 22 ppb mean, 35 ppb max organic chemicals manufacturing/plastics (190 ppb max), petroleum refining (< 1 ppb max), and textile mills (< 10 ppb max) . Additionally the raw wastewater of the following industries not listed above contained 4-nitrophenol (industry (concn)): auto and other laundries (14 ppb mean), aluminum forming (18 ppb max) metal finishing (10 ppb max), and photographic equipment/supplies (57 ppb max) . National Urban Runoff Program in which 19 cities and metropolitan councils across the USA (51 catchments) were sampled - detected in Long Island, NY, Washington, DC, Little Rock AK, and Eugene, OR in the range 1-19 ppb, 9% frequency of detection . Not detected in the effluent from 4 Southern Californian municipal wastewater treatment plants .

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