|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||Benzyl chloride||Benzene, (chloromethyl)-
||EPA Method 8010||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| MFR BENZYL COMPOUNDS, PERFUMES, PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS,
DYES, SYNTHETIC TANNINS, & ARTIFICIAL RESINS
AS AN IRRITANT GAS IN CHEMICAL WARFARE (FORMER USE)
MFR OF PHOTOGRAPHIC DEVELOPER; PENICILLIN PRECURSORS
CHEM INT FOR N-BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE; OTHER BENZYL PHTHALATES;
PHARMACEUTICALS-EG, PENICILLIN G; BENZYL QUATERNARY AMMONIUM
SALTS; BENZYL ALCOHOL; OTHER BENZYL ESTERS-EG, ACETATE & BENZOATE;
BENZYL AMINES; TRIPHENYLMETHANE DYES; DIBENZYL DISULFIDE (AN
ANTIOXIDANT); RUBBER ACCELERATORS & GASOLINE GUM INHIBITOR;
Benzyl chloride may be used as a blocking agent to prepare monoalkylated piperazine. After
blocking one nitrogen, it is alkylated by alkyl halide. The blocking agent is removed by catalytic
Reacts with aromatic compounds such as naphthalene and toluene to produce the
Electron-Beam-Sensitive Fluid Media
Mfr bactericides and fungicides, flavors and odorants, insecticides, lubricants, plastics, and
Benzyl chloride and tin metal are used in the synthesis of tribenzyltin chloride.
Benzyl chloride is used to convert a variety of tertiary amines to quaternary ammonium chlorides.
The most important of these, made from dimethyl alkyl amines containing long chain (C10-C18)
alkyl groups, are bactericides used widely in industries and institutions.
|Consumption Patterns|| CHEM INT: BENZYL PHTHALATE, 62%; BENZYL ALCOHOL, 11%; BENZYL
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS, 10%; & PHARMACEUTICALS, 8% (1978)
CHEM INT FOR N-BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE, 60%; CHEM INT FOR
PHARMACEUTICALS, 12%; CHEM INT FOR QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS, 10%;
CHEM INT FOR OTHER BENZYL PHTHALATES, 7%; CHEM INT FOR BENZYL
ALCOHOL, 6%; OTHER USES, 5% (1981)
Butyl benzyl phthalate, 60%; benzyl alcohol, 12.5%; quaternary ammonium compounds, 11%;
benzyl cyanide, 3%; other, including benzyl acetate, benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate,
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Benzyl Chloride. Butyl benzyl phthalate, 65%; benzyl quaternary
ammonium compounds, 15%; benzyl alcohol, 10%; miscellaneous, including benzyl acetate,
salicylate, propionate and cinnamante, 10%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Benzyl chloride. Demand: 1986: 65 million lb; 1987: 67 million lb; 1991
/projected/: 72 million lb (In addition, 1.3 million lb were imported in 1986; exports are minimal).
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS TO SLIGHTLY YELLOW LIQ
|Odor|| RATHER UNPLEASANT, IRRITATING ODOR ; Pungent, aromatic odor
|Boiling Point|| 179 DEG C
|Melting Point|| -43 TO -48 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 126.58
|Density|| 1.100 @ 20 DEG C/20 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Low: 0.235 mg/cu m, High: 1.55 mg/cu m, Irritation Level: 41 mg/cu m from table
Odor recognition in air= 4.7x10-2 ppm chemically pure
|Sensitivity Data|| Vapors are intensely irritating to all mucous membranes, particularly to the eye.
Unbearable eye irritation is produced by 31 ppm in air.
IRRITANT TO EYES & RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CONCN ABOVE THE THRESHOLD
Vapors irritate skin .
CONCN OF 6-8 MG/CU M CAUSE A SLIGHT CONJUNCTIVITIS AFTER 5 MIN OF
EXPOSURE. AIRBORNE CONCN OF 50-100 MG/CU M CAUSE WEEPING &
TWITCHING OF EYELIDS & IN CONCN OF 160 MG/CU M IT IS UNBEARABLY
IRRITATING TO THE EYES & MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF THE NOSE.
|Environmental Impact|| Benzyl chloride is released to the environment by emissions involved with its production
and use, by emissions from waste incineration, and by emissions from floor tile manufactured with
butyl benzyl phthalate. Due to its rapid transformation in environmental media, benzyl chloride is
not expected to be a persistent environmental contaminant. If released to water, hydrolysis will be
the dominant removal mechanism as the hydrolysis half-life ranges from 19.1 to 0.58 days at
respective temperature ranges of 0.1 to 25 deg C. The rate of volatilization from water in shallow,
rapidly moving streams may be similar in magnitude to the rate of hydrolysis. If released to soil,
benzyl chloride can be expected to hydrolyze under moist conditions. Leaching is likely to occur,
although hydrolytic decomposition may occur at rates sufficent to minimize the importance of
leaching. Evaporation from dry surfaces will probably occur. If released to the atmosphere, the
dominant removal mechanism will be reaction with hydroxyl radicals. The atmospheric residence
time, with respect to hydroxyl radical reactions, has been estimated to be approximately 3 days.
Monitoring of ambient outdoor air in seven USA cities between 1980 and 1981 found benzyl
chloride levels generally below detection limits of 5 ppt, although concentrations as high as 111
ppt were detected. Indoor inhalation exposure may occur due to emissions from floor tile made
with butyl benzyl phthalate.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Benzyl chloride can be expected to hydrolyze quite rapidly in
moist soils based on its relatively rapid hydrolysis in aqueous solutions. Significant leaching in soil
is likely to occur; however, hydrolytic decomposition may occur in moist soil at rates sufficient to
significantly minimize the importance of leaching. Screening tests have shown that benzyl chloride
is readily biodegradable; therefore, biodegradation in various soils may be important. The
relatively high vapor pressure of benzyl chloride suggests that evaporation from dry surfaces may
be relatively rapid.
AQUATIC FATE: In water, the dominant removal mechanism for benzyl chloride will be
hydrolysis which has half-lives ranging from 19.1 to 0.58 days at respective temperature ranges of
0.1 to 25 deg C. Volatilization from shallow, rapidly moving streams may be a competitive
removal mechanism with hydrolysis; however, in most environmental bodies of water, hydrolysis
should be dominant. Screening tests have shown that benzyl chloride is readily biodegradable;
therefore, biodegradation may have some importance in various natural waters. Bioconcentration
in aquatic organisms and adsorption to sediment and suspended matter is not expected to be
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: The dominant removal mechanism of benzyl chloride in the atmosphere
is its reaction with hydroxyl radicals . The atmospheric residence time of benzyl chloride, with
respect to hydroxyl radical reactions, has been estimated to be approximately 3 days. The
atmospheric half-life with respect to ozone reaction is in excess of 200 days and is therefore not
competitive with hydroxyl radical reaction. Physical removal of benzyl chloride from the
atmosphere is not likely to be important compared with hydroxyl reactions .
|Drinking Water Impact|| BENZYL CHLORIDE HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED IN SURFACE WATER IT HAS
ALSO BEEN IDENTIFIED IN WATER SAMPLES TAKEN FROM THE DELAWARE
RIVER IN PENNSYLVANIA & IN NEW JERSEY.
SURFACE WATER: Benzyl chloride was positively detected in one of 17 samples (no
concentration reported) collected from the Delaware river in October 1976 .
EFFL: BENZYL CHLORIDE HAS BEEN IDENTIFED IN OIL REFINERY EFFLUENTS &
OTHER INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS.
Benzyl chloride has been detected in various unidentified industrial effluents . It has also been
detected in stack effluents from waste incinerators .