SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 100527
CASRN 100-52-7
SynonymsBenzaldehyde
Analytical Method EPA Method 8315
Molecular Formula C7H6O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use BEE REPELLENT FORMER PESTICIDE REACTED WITH VINYL FIBERS TO IMPART ELASTIC RECOVERY; INT FOR NUMEROUS DERIV, INCL DYES; ODORANT IN PERFUMES; FLAVORING INGREDIENT CHEM INTERMEDIATE FOR AROMATIC ALC; SOLVENT FOR OILS, RESINS, SOME CELLULOSE ETHERS, CELLULOSE ACETATE & NITRATE; MFR BENZOIC ACID; PHARMACEUTICALS; PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEM MANUFACTURE OF CINNAMIC & MANDELIC ACIDS TECHNICAL GRADE BENZALDEHYDE IS LARGELY USED AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ODORANTS AND FLAVORING CHEMICALS, MAINLY CINNAMALDEHYDE, AMYL CINNAMALDEHYDE, HEXYL CINNAMALDEHYDE AND CINNAMYL ALCOHOL. NF BENZALDEHYDE IS USED DIRECTLY AS A FLAVORING AGENT, PARTICULARLY FOR ARTIFICIAL CHERRY AND ALMOND FLAVORS STARTING MATERIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICALS (AMPICILLIN) AND PESTICIDES (DIBENZOQUAT)
Consumption Patterns 45% IS USED AS AN ODORANT AND FLAVORING CHEM; 30% AS AN INT FOR DYES; AND 25% FOR THE MFR OF OTHER CHEMS (1965) /PRIMARILY USED AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ODORANTS AND FLAVORING CHEMICALS (1978 DATA)
Apparent Color COLORLESS LIQUID
Odor Odor of volatile oil of almond ; Bitter almonds
Boiling Point 179 DEG C
Melting Point -26 DEG C; FP: -56 DEG C
Molecular Weight 106.12
Density 1.050 @ 15 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 0.042 ppm
Sensitivity Data Inhalation of concentrated vapor may irritate eyes, nose & throat. Liquid is irritating to eyes. Prolonged contact with the skin may cause irritation. HIGHLY IRRITANT ACTION ON MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT. ALDEHYDES
Environmental Impact Benzaldehyde is released to the environment in emissions from combustion processes such as gasoline and diesel engines, incinerators and wood burning. It is formed in the atmosphere through photochemical oxidation of toluene and otheraromatic hydrocarbons. It occurs naturally in various plants. If released to the atmosphere, benzaldehyde will degrade by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 29.8 hr); direct photolysis may contribute to its atmospheric degradation. Physical removal from air by wet deposition can occur. If released to soil or water, the major degradation pathway is expected to be biodegradation. Physical transport from water can occur through volatilization. Estimated Koc values (9-71) suggest that benzaldehyde will leach in soil. Occupational exposure to benzaldehyde occurs through inhalation of vapor and dermal contact. The general population is exposed to benzaldehyde through consumption of food (where it occurs either naturally or as an intentional food additive) and inhalation of contaminated air.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: The primary degradation process in soil is expected to be biodegradation. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that benzaldehyde is readily biodegradable. Estimated Koc values of 34 and 150 suggest that benzaldehyde will leach readily(1,SRC). AQUATIC FATE: The major environmental degradation process for benzaldehyde in water is probably biodegradation. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that benzaldehyde is readily biodegradable. Volatilization may have some importance; volatilization half-lives of 37 hr and 17 days have been estimated for a model river (one meter deep) and an environmental pond, respectively(2,3). Direct photolysis may occur in brightly sunlit waters; however, reliable photolysis rates are not available. Aquatic hydrolysis, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be important fate processes. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 1.27 mm Hg at 25 deg C , benzaldehyde is expected to exist primarily in the vapor-phase in the ambient atmosphere(2,SRC). Vapor-phase benzaldehyde will degrade in an average ambient atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 29.8 hr)(3,SRC). Direct photolysis and reaction with nitrate radicals (during night-time hrs) will also contribute to its atmospheric degradation. Small quantities of benzaldehyde have been detected in atmospheric aerosol particulates(4,5); particulate material can be physically removed from air via dry and wet deposition. Benzaldehyde's detection in rain, snow, fog, and cloud water(6,7) indicates that wet deposition has some environmental importance.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: A benzaldehyde conc of 0.03 ug/L was detected in the drinking water taken from the Carrollton Water Treatment Plant in New Orleans, LA in Aug 1974 . Benzaldehyde was qualitatively detected in various drinking water samples collected in Philadelphia, PA between Feb 1975 and Jan 1977 . Benzaldehyde has been detected (no concn available) for drinking water samples from Poplarville, MS (Mar 2, 1979), Cincinnati, OH (Oct 17, 1979, Jan 14, 1980), Miami, FL (Feb 3, 1976), New Orleans. LA (Jan 14, 1976), Philadelphia, PA (Feb 10, 1976), and Ottumwa, IO (Sep 10, 1976) . SURFACE WATERS: Benzaldehyde was detected in only one of 204 water samples (concn > 1 ppb) collected from 14 heavily industrialized river basins in the US . Benzaldehyde was qualitatively detected in water samples taken from Lake Ontario . A benzaldehyde concn of 0.03 ug/L was detected in samples of lake water collected from Lake Pontchartrain (New Orleans, LA) in Jan 1980 . GROUND WATER: Benzaldehyde was detected (no concn reported) in 1 of 2963 ground water wells that were monitored in 28 of California's 58 counties as of Apr 1984 . The maximum conc of benzaldehyde detected in CA ground water is reported to be 2.0 ug/l . SEAWATER: Grab samples collected from coastal and open surface waters contained benzaldehyde levels of 0-15 ng/kg . RAIN/SNOW: Benzaldehyde levels of 0-0.57 ug/ml (mean conc 0.05 ug/ml) have been detected in cloud water collected from Henninger Flats, CA ; levels of 0.08-0.19 ug/ml have been detected in ice fog water collected from Fairbanks, Alaska ; rain water collected in Carson, CA contained a benzaldehyde concn of 0.09 ug/ml . EFFL: Benzaldehyde levels of 12-15 ppb were detected in wood smoke . Benzaldehyde levels of 0.002-0.102 g/kg wood have been detected in emissions from fireplaces burning pine, cedar, oak and ash wood . Emissions from gasoline powered automobiles were found to contain benzaldehyde concns of 0.7 to 19 mg/km traveled(3,4). Benzaldehyde concn in exhausts from engines burning simple hydrocarbons was <0.1-13.5 ppm . Flue gas emissions from a waste incinerator on a high-rise building in Norway had a benzaldehyde concn of 6 ug/cu m(6).

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