|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 8315|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| BEE REPELLENT FORMER PESTICIDE
REACTED WITH VINYL FIBERS TO IMPART ELASTIC RECOVERY; INT FOR
NUMEROUS DERIV, INCL DYES; ODORANT IN PERFUMES; FLAVORING
CHEM INTERMEDIATE FOR AROMATIC ALC; SOLVENT FOR OILS, RESINS, SOME
CELLULOSE ETHERS, CELLULOSE ACETATE & NITRATE; MFR BENZOIC ACID;
PHARMACEUTICALS; PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEM
MANUFACTURE OF CINNAMIC & MANDELIC ACIDS
TECHNICAL GRADE BENZALDEHYDE IS LARGELY USED AS AN INTERMEDIATE
FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ODORANTS AND FLAVORING CHEMICALS, MAINLY
CINNAMALDEHYDE, AMYL CINNAMALDEHYDE, HEXYL CINNAMALDEHYDE AND
CINNAMYL ALCOHOL. NF BENZALDEHYDE IS USED DIRECTLY AS A FLAVORING
AGENT, PARTICULARLY FOR ARTIFICIAL CHERRY AND ALMOND FLAVORS
STARTING MATERIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICALS (AMPICILLIN) AND PESTICIDES
|Consumption Patterns|| 45% IS USED AS AN ODORANT AND FLAVORING CHEM; 30% AS AN INT FOR
DYES; AND 25% FOR THE MFR OF OTHER CHEMS (1965)
/PRIMARILY USED AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF
ODORANTS AND FLAVORING CHEMICALS (1978 DATA)
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQUID
|Odor|| Odor of volatile oil of almond ; Bitter almonds
|Boiling Point|| 179 DEG C
|Melting Point|| -26 DEG C; FP: -56 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 106.12
|Density|| 1.050 @ 15 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| 0.042 ppm
|Sensitivity Data|| Inhalation of concentrated vapor may irritate eyes, nose & throat. Liquid is irritating to
eyes. Prolonged contact with the skin may cause irritation.
HIGHLY IRRITANT ACTION ON MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF THE RESPIRATORY
|Environmental Impact|| Benzaldehyde is released to the environment in emissions from combustion processes such
as gasoline and diesel engines, incinerators and wood burning. It is formed in the atmosphere
through photochemical oxidation of toluene and otheraromatic hydrocarbons. It occurs naturally
in various plants. If released to the atmosphere, benzaldehyde will degrade by reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 29.8 hr); direct photolysis may contribute
to its atmospheric degradation. Physical removal from air by wet deposition can occur. If released
to soil or water, the major degradation pathway is expected to be biodegradation. Physical
transport from water can occur through volatilization. Estimated Koc values (9-71) suggest that
benzaldehyde will leach in soil. Occupational exposure to benzaldehyde occurs through inhalation
of vapor and dermal contact. The general population is exposed to benzaldehyde through
consumption of food (where it occurs either naturally or as an intentional food additive) and
inhalation of contaminated air.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: The primary degradation process in soil is expected to be
biodegradation. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that benzaldehyde is
readily biodegradable. Estimated Koc values of 34 and 150 suggest that benzaldehyde will leach
AQUATIC FATE: The major environmental degradation process for benzaldehyde in water is
probably biodegradation. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that
benzaldehyde is readily biodegradable. Volatilization may have some importance; volatilization
half-lives of 37 hr and 17 days have been estimated for a model river (one meter deep) and an
environmental pond, respectively(2,3). Direct photolysis may occur in brightly sunlit waters;
however, reliable photolysis rates are not available. Aquatic hydrolysis, adsorption to sediment,
and bioconcentration are not expected to be important fate processes.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 1.27 mm Hg at 25 deg C ,
benzaldehyde is expected to exist primarily in the vapor-phase in the ambient atmosphere(2,SRC).
Vapor-phase benzaldehyde will degrade in an average ambient atmosphere by reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 29.8 hr)(3,SRC). Direct
photolysis and reaction with nitrate radicals (during night-time hrs) will also contribute to its
atmospheric degradation. Small quantities of benzaldehyde have been detected in atmospheric
aerosol particulates(4,5); particulate material can be physically removed from air via dry and wet
deposition. Benzaldehyde's detection in rain, snow, fog, and cloud water(6,7) indicates that wet
deposition has some environmental importance.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: A benzaldehyde conc of 0.03 ug/L was detected in the drinking
water taken from the Carrollton Water Treatment Plant in New Orleans, LA in Aug 1974 .
Benzaldehyde was qualitatively detected in various drinking water samples collected in
Philadelphia, PA between Feb 1975 and Jan 1977 . Benzaldehyde has been detected (no concn
available) for drinking water samples from Poplarville, MS (Mar 2, 1979), Cincinnati, OH (Oct
17, 1979, Jan 14, 1980), Miami, FL (Feb 3, 1976), New Orleans. LA (Jan 14, 1976), Philadelphia,
PA (Feb 10, 1976), and Ottumwa, IO (Sep 10, 1976) .
SURFACE WATERS: Benzaldehyde was detected in only one of 204 water samples (concn > 1
ppb) collected from 14 heavily industrialized river basins in the US . Benzaldehyde was
qualitatively detected in water samples taken from Lake Ontario . A benzaldehyde concn of
0.03 ug/L was detected in samples of lake water collected from Lake Pontchartrain (New
Orleans, LA) in Jan 1980 .
GROUND WATER: Benzaldehyde was detected (no concn reported) in 1 of 2963 ground water
wells that were monitored in 28 of California's 58 counties as of Apr 1984 . The maximum conc
of benzaldehyde detected in CA ground water is reported to be 2.0 ug/l .
SEAWATER: Grab samples collected from coastal and open surface waters contained
benzaldehyde levels of 0-15 ng/kg .
RAIN/SNOW: Benzaldehyde levels of 0-0.57 ug/ml (mean conc 0.05 ug/ml) have been detected
in cloud water collected from Henninger Flats, CA ; levels of 0.08-0.19 ug/ml have been
detected in ice fog water collected from Fairbanks, Alaska ; rain water collected in Carson, CA
contained a benzaldehyde concn of 0.09 ug/ml .
EFFL: Benzaldehyde levels of 12-15 ppb were detected in wood smoke . Benzaldehyde levels
of 0.002-0.102 g/kg wood have been detected in emissions from fireplaces burning pine, cedar,
oak and ash wood . Emissions from gasoline powered automobiles were found to contain
benzaldehyde concns of 0.7 to 19 mg/km traveled(3,4). Benzaldehyde concn in exhausts from
engines burning simple hydrocarbons was <0.1-13.5 ppm . Flue gas emissions from a waste
incinerator on a high-rise building in Norway had a benzaldehyde concn of 6 ug/cu m(6).