|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||trans-1,3-Dichloropropene||1-Propene, 1,3-dichloro-, (E)-
||EPA Method 502.2||EPA Method 524.2
||EPA Method 601
||EPA Method 624
||EPA Method 8010
||EPA Method 8021
||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| USED PRIMARILY IN SOIL FUMIGANTS FOR NEMATODES OR AS
COMPONENT OF SOIL FUMIGANT MIXTURES FOR NEMATODES/; SMALL AMT AS
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene is used as a chemical intermediate and corrosion inhibition agent.
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQUID
|Odor|| CHLOROFORM-LIKE ODOR; Sharp, sweet, penetrating odor
|Boiling Point|| 112 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 110.97
|Density|| 1.224 AT 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Sensitivity Data|| EYE, SKIN & RESP TRACT IRRITANT. 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (CIS AND
|Environmental Impact|| trans-1,3-Dichloropropene is released into the air and in wastewater during its
production and use as soil fumigant and chemical intermediate. When injected into the soil most
of the trans-1,3-dichloropropene will be lost through volatilization over the course of
approximately 4 weeks. Higher moisture content in the soil will accelerate volatilization since
adsorption is much lower to wet soil than dry. In spill situations, trans-1,3-dichloropropene will
volatilize much faster. This compound may also leach. Hydrolysis (half-life ranging behavior 7 to
>69 days) to trans-1,3-chloroallyl alcohol will also be important. If released into water, it will be
lost primarily through volatilization (half-life from a model river 4 hours). Adsorption to sediment
and bioconcentration in fish are not expected to be important processes. In the atmosphere, this
compound will degrade primarily by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals
(half-life 29 hours) or scavenged by rain. Some dispersion away from source or target areas
should be expected. Humans are primarily exposed to this compound occupationally, by inhalation
near source areas, and by ingestion of contaminated drinking water.
|Environmental Fate|| ATMOSPHERIC FATE: The cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene isomers are widely
used as insecticide fumigants in a variety of commercial formulations. In order to investigate their
lifetimes and reaction mechanisms, kinetic and product data were obtained at room temperature
for the gas phase reactions of ppm concn of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene with ozone and
with hydroxide radicals in Teflon chambers. The products observed from the reaction of
hydroxide radicals with the 1,3-dichloropropene isomers were formyl chloride and
chloroacetaldehyde, with unit yields.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: trans-1,3-Dichloropropene is mobile in soil; its movement is a function
of temperature, soil type and moisture(1,3). The fumigant will bind to the soil, degrade, leach, or
be vented into the atmosphere. It is estimated that 5-10% of trans-1,3-dichloropropene is lost to
the atmosphere after a commercial application of fumigant to a warm, moist sandy soil at a depth
of 0.3 m . In soils simulating the structure and moisture conditions that may occur in the field
during fumigation, <1% was in the soil vapor phase, 10-20% in the water phase, whereas 80-90%
was adsorbed . An increase in temperature, increases the Henry's Law constant and diffusion of
1,3-dichloropropene through soil and shortens the volatilization time . Generally, when the
temperature decreases from 25 to 5 deg C, there will be a threefold increase in the ratio of the
trans-1,3-dichloropropene in the water phase as in air .
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Adsorption is higher in dry soils than in moist soil . However,
water-saturated soils have air passageways blocked and fumigant movement is decreased . This
is illustrated by a 20-day study in which the 1,3-dichloropropene diffused to <.46 m in a silty clay
loam with 23% moisture (dry wt) and >1.20 m in the same soil when the moisture content was
7.7% . The concentration of a mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene was monitored at ground level
and at 42 inches above ground after fumigant was applied to a pineapple field at a depth of 18
inches . 1,3-Dichloropropene levels were relatively constant (20-50 ppb) at ground level for 6
days after fumigation; after 9 days the concn steadily declined to <0.1 ppb at 27-30 days. A light
rain at day 6 temporarily increased the release of the fumigant 100-fold . The reduced
adsorption due to increased soil moisture, resulted in a transfer of fumigant from soil to water at
or near the soil surface, after which evaporation occurred. At 42 inches above ground level,
1,3-dichloropropene was still detectable and was probably drifting in from other fields .
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Hydrolysis of 1,3-dichloropropene occurs in soil (half-life 3 days to >69
days) forming 3-chlorallyl alcohol(1,3,4,5). When C(14)-trans- 1,3-dichloropropene treated sandy
loam soil (46 ppm) was covered with 12 cm of untreated soil and kept outdoors in open glass
containers, 23% of the radioactivity remained in the soil 10 days post treatment and 5% remained
after 6 mo . Less than 20% of the extracted radioactivity was present as unchanged parent in
every case which indicates that hydrolysis or biodegradation had occurred . Greater than 80%
of the products were present as products more polar than chloroacrylic acids . In a related
experiment in which the treated soil was not covered with untreated soil and kept in closed glass
flasks, 93% of the 1,3-dichloropropene volatilized as the parent compound in one hour .
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Eight months after D-D (mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene and
1,2-dichloropropene) soil fumigant was applied to muck and sandy loam soils in August during
field studies, 4.8 ppm of trans-1,3-dichloropropene was found in the muck soil and 0.39 ppm was
found in the sandy loam . Residues persisted >91 days in the sandy soil of a tree nursery and
were also found in neighboring irrigation wells. 1,3-Dichloropropene was injected 0.2 m deep into
the soil of three flower bulb fields during summer. Based on soil samples collected at depths of
0-0.6 m, the half-life of trans-1,3-dichloropropene was determined to be about 4 days . Another
investigated estimated that the half-life of trans-1,3- dichloropropene in soil at 20 deg C ranges
from 3 to 25 days .
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: Trans-1,3-dichloropropene was detected in the Lake Ontario
Basin (Genesee River and Wine Creek) . Ohio River System (1978-79) 6 stations, 991 samples
on Ohio River; 2 stations, 359 samples on tributaries, 3.9% of samples from the Ohio River had
detectable levels of trans-1,3-dichloropropene <1 ppb and 0.6% between 1 and 10 ppb, whereas it
was not detected in tributaries .
RAIN/SNOW: Oct 1982, trans-1,3-dichloropropene detected in the aqueous phase of rain water
collected in Portland, OR or at a concentration of 2 ng/L .
EFFL: A landfill leachate chemical cmpd.
1980/81, sewage treatment plant, trans-1,3- dichloropropene: raw effluent, 3 samples, 67% pos.,
concn range 3-8 ug/L, detection limit not reported; treated effluent prior to chlorination, 1
sample, 3 ug/L; final effluent, 2 samples, concn range 1-2 ug/L . 1978,
trans-1,3-dichloropropene detected in treated effluent from seven petroleum refineries, concn
range <0.7-1 ug/l .