|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 502.2||EPA Method 503.1
||EPA Method 524.2
||EPA Method 601
||EPA Method 602
||EPA Method 612
||EPA Method 624
||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8010
||EPA Method 8021
||EPA Method 8120
||EPA Method 8260
||EPA Method 8270
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| INSECTICIDAL FUMIGANT; POPULAR FOR DOMESTIC USE AGAINST CLOTHES
GERMICIDE; MFR OF 2,5-DICHLOROANILINE; DYES; USED IN PHARMACY
p-Dichlorobenzene is sometimes used as a deodorant for garbage and restrooms, as well as an
insecticide for control of fruit borers and ants.
May be applied to tobacco seed beds for blue mold control; for the control of peach tree borer;
and mildew and mold on leather and fabrics.
Gallery injections with 6 insecticides and 3 fumigants were tested for comparative effectiveness in
controlling Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), and Paranthrene simulans (Grote). The three fumigants
(carbon disulfide, Serafume, and paradichlorobenzene) provided complete control. The gallery
injection technique was deemed feasible for use against borers in high-value trees. Gallery
injection has advantages over bark sprays because it can give satisfactory control of borers already
established in galleries and limits chemical application to a few galleries instead of entire trees or
stands of trees.
It is used as an additive in resin-bonded abrasive wheels to provide a more open structure, and
vaporizes during the curing operation leaving pores and wider grain spacing.
Hydrolysis of 1,4-dichlorobenzene with cupric salts and hydroxylamine gives the
Nitration of p-dichlorobenzene to yield 1,4-dichloro-2-nitrobenzene intermediate for dyestuff/.
The reaction of p-dichlorobenzene with sodium sulfide in a polar organic solvent to produce
poly(phenylene sulfide) An engineering plastic used for surface coatings and model resins/.
Para-dichlorobenzene may have had minor use as an extreme-pressure lubricant.
applications include use as an intermediate in organic synthesis and as on animal repellant.
Use in pig stalls as an odor control agent
|Consumption Patterns|| 35-40% FOR MOTH CONTROL; 35-40% AS SPACE DEODORANT; 25% OR LESS
FOR MISC APPLICATIONS INCLUDING USE AS A DYE INTERMEDIATE AND IN
INSECTICIDE MANUFACTURE (1972)
Space deodorant, 55%; moth control, 35%; and other applications, 10% (1978)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: p-Dichlorobenzene. Space deodorants, moth control agents and others,
34%; exports, 30%; polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) resin, 27%; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 9%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: p-Dichlorobenzene. Demand: 1986: 74 million lb; 1987: 77 million lb;
1991 projected/: 90 million lb.
|Apparent Color|| White crystals ; MONOCLINIC PRISMS, LEAVES FROM ACETONE ; Available as
|Odor|| DISTINCTIVE AROMATIC ODOR BECOMES VERY STRONG AT CONCN
BETWEEN 30 & 60 PPM ; Mothball like odor
|Boiling Point|| 174 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| 53.1 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 147.01
|Density|| 1.2475 g/ml @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Sensitivity Data|| FUMES FROM SURFACE OF HOT P-DICHLOROBENZENE MAY IRRITATE SKIN
SLIGHTLY WHEN CONTACT IS REPEATED OR PROLONGED.
Exposure to p-dichlorobenzene may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.
VAPORS AND SPRAYS ARE IRRITATING TO EYES, NOSE & THROAT.
|Environmental Impact|| Chemical waste dump leachates and direct manufacturing effluents are reported to be the
major source of pollution of the chlorobenzenes (including the dichlorbenzenes) to Lake Ontario.
The major source of 1,4-dichlorobenzene emission to the atmosphere is volatilization from use in
toilet bowl deodorants, garbage deodorants and moth flakes. If released to soil,
1,4-dichlorobenzene can be moderately to tightly adsorbed. Leaching from hazardous waste
disposal areas has occured and the detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in various groundwaters
indicates that leaching can occur. Volatilization from soil surfaces may be an important transport
mechanism. It is possible that 1,4-dichlorobenzene will be slowly biodegraded in soil under
aerobic conditions. Chemical transformation by hydrolysis, oxidation or direct photolysis are not
expected to occur in soil. If released to water, volatilization may be the dominant removal
process. The volatilization half-life from a model river one meter deep flowing one meter/sec with
a wind velocity of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 4.3 hours at 20 deg C. Adsorption to sediment will
be a major environmental fate process based upon extensive monitoring data in the Great Lakes
area and Koc values based upon monitoring samples. Analysis of Lake Ontario sediment cores has
indicated the presence and persistence of 1,4-dichlorobenzene since before 1940. Adsorption to
sediment will attenuate volatilization. Aerobic biodegradation in water may be possible, however,
anaerobic biodegradation is not expected to occur. For the most part, experimental BCF values
reported in the literature are less than 1000 which suggests that significant bioconcentration will
not occur; however, a BCF of 1800 was determined for guppies in one study. Aquatic hydrolysis,
oxidation and direct photolysis are not expected to be important. If released to air,
1,4-dichlorobenzene will exist predominantly in the vapor-phase and will react with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals at an estimated half-life rate of 31 days in typical
atmosphere. Direct photolysis in the troposphere is not expected to be important. The detection
of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in rain-water suggests that atmospheric removal via wash-out is possible.
General population exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene may occur through oral consumption of
contaminated drinking water and food (particularly fish) and through inhalation of contaminated
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on experimental adsorption data, 1,4-dichlorobenzene can
be moderately to tightly adsorbed in soil. Leaching from hazardous waste disposal areas in
Niagara Falls to adjacent surface waters has been reported and the detection of
1,4-dichlorobenzene in various groundwaters indicates that leaching can occur. Volatilization
from soil surfaces may be an important transport mechanism; however, volatilization may be
attenuated by tight adsorption or leaching. It is possible that 1,4-dichlorobenzene will be slowly
biodegraded in soil under aerobic conditions. Chemical transformation processes such as
hydrolysis, oxidation or direct photolysis (on soil surfaces) are not expected to occur.
AQUATIC FATE: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is volatile from water with an estimated half-life of 4.3
hours from a river one meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec at 20 deg C.
Studies carried out in an experimental marine ecosystem found volatilization to be the major
removal process for 1,4-dichlorobenzene . Volatilization was also found to be predominant
elimination mechanism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene from Lake Zurich in Switzerland based on
one-year monitoring studies and laboratory studies . Monitoring data based Koc values of
63000-100000 and extensive sediment monitoring data in the Great Lakes area indicate that
adsorption to sediment is a major environmental fate process for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Its
detection in Lake Ontario sediment cores indicates that 1,4-dichlorobenzene has persisted in these
sediments since before 1940 . Adsorption to sediment in water will attenuate volatilization.
1,4-Dichlorobenzene may biodegrade in aerobic water after microbial adaptation; however, it is
not expected to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions which may exist in lake sediments or
various groundwaters. Experimental BCF values reported in the literature are less than 1000, for
the most part, which suggests that significant bioconcentration will not occur; however, a BCF of
1800 was determined for guppies during one study. Aquatic hydrolysis, oxidation and direct
photolysis are not expected to be important .
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene will exist predominantly in the vapor-phase in the
atmosphere. The half-life for the vapor-phase reaction of 1,4-dichlorobenzene with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere has been estimated to be 31 days.
Direct photolysis is not expected to be important. The detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in
rainwater suggests that atmospheric removal via wash-out is possible.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: A mean 1,4-dichlorobenzene concn of 0.013 ppb was detected in
drinking water samples from 3 cities near Lake Ontario in 1980 . Concn of 0.5 ppb was
identified in Miami, FL drinking water and qualitative detections were reported for Philadelphia,
PA and Cincinnati, OH . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was found in 9 of 945 finished water supplies
throughout the USA that use groundwater sources at mean concn of 0.60-0.74 ppb .
Qualitative detection was reported for Cleveland, OH tap water in 1975 . Dichlorobenzene
isomers were found in drinking water in the vicinity of the Love Canal at levels of 10-800 ng/l .
1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected at levels below 1 ppb in an analysis of 30 potable Canadian
water sources(6). Qualitative detection reported for 14 drinking water supply sources in the
GROUNDWATER: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was positively detected in 19 of 685 groundwaters
analyzed in NJ during 1977-1979 with 995 ppb the highest concn found . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
was detected in groundwater near Boulder, CO (0.5 ppb) and near Phoenix, AZ (0.07 ppb) at
land application sites using rapid infiltration treatment of wastewaters . Concn ranging from not
detected to 32.6 ppb were found in groundwater in Texas . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected
in groundwaters in the Netherlands at maximum concn of 3.0 ppb .
SURFACE WATERS: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected in 26 of 463 surface waters analyzed in
NJ during 1977-1979 with 30.5 ppb the highest concn found . Mean concentrations of 45, 4
and 10 parts per trillion detected in Lake Ontario, Lake Huron and Grand River water,
respectively, during 1980; concn of 1-94 parts per trillion found in the Niagara River . Concn of
9.0-310 parts per trillion (mean concn of 36 parts per trillion) detected in Niagara River at
Niagara-On-The-Lake between 1981 and 1983 . Concn of 8.7-110 parts per trillion (mean
concn of 24 parts per trillion) detected in the Niagara River between 1981 and 1983 . An
average concn of 48 parts per trillion was found in the Niagara River near Niagara-On-The-Lake
between Sept and Oct 1982 . Positive detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was reported by 3.0%
of 8576 USEPA STORET stations(6). Qualitative detection reported for Delaware and Raritan
Canal in NJ(7). Concn below 0.5 ppb detected in the Rhine River between 1978-1982(8). An
average concn of 0.19 ppb found in the Rhine River near Dusseldorf in 1984(9).
SEA WATER: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was qualitatively detected not quantified in the water column
of the Narragansett Bay near Rhode Island .
RAIN/SNOW: A mean 1,4-dichlorobenzene concn of 0.66 parts per trillion was detected in
Portland, OR rainwater during March-Apr 1982 ; a mean concn of 5.5 arts per trillion detected
in Portland, OR rainwater during Oct-Dec 1982 . Average concn of 4.1 parts per trillion found
in Portland, OR rainwater during 1984 .
EFFL: The wastewater effluents from four activated sludge waste-water treatment plants
discharging into the Grand River and Lake Ontario contained a mean 1,4-dichlorobenzene concn
of 660 parts per trillion during 1980 sampling . Positive detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was
reported by 1.7% of 1306 USEPA STORET stations . Concn of 0.4-100 ppb were detected in
Southern California municipal wastewater effluents in 1976 . Mean concn of 3.0 and 3.1 ppb
were found in the final effluents of the Los Angeles County municipal wastewater treatment plant
in July 1978 and Nov 1980, respectively . Qualitative detection reported for chemical plant and
sewage treatment plant effluents at unspecified facilities in the USA . Concn of 7.7-16 ppb were
detected in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills in Minnesota(6). Concn of 7-40 ppb
found in leachate associated groundwater beneath a municipal landfill in Ontario, Canada(7). The
dichlorobenzene isomers were qualitatively detected in waters adjacent to hazardous waste
disposal areas in Niagara Falls, NY as a result of leaching(8). Ambient mean air concn of
0.03-4.19 ppb were detected above six abandoned hazardous waste sites in NJ as a result of
volatile emanations(9). Flue gas effluents from a municipal refuse-fired steam boiler in Virginia
contained 4.4 ug/cu m of the dichlorobenzene isomers(10); flue gas effluents from a
refuse-derived-fired power plant in Ohio contained 7.8 ng/cu m of the dichlorobenzene