SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 106467
CASRN 106-46-7
Synonyms1,4-Dichlorobenzene
Benzene, 1,4-dichloro-
p-Dichlorobenzene
Paramoth
Analytical Methods EPA Method 502.2
EPA Method 503.1
EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 601
EPA Method 602
EPA Method 612
EPA Method 624
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8010
EPA Method 8021
EPA Method 8120
EPA Method 8260
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC6H4Cl2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use INSECTICIDAL FUMIGANT; POPULAR FOR DOMESTIC USE AGAINST CLOTHES MOTHS GERMICIDE; MFR OF 2,5-DICHLOROANILINE; DYES; USED IN PHARMACY p-Dichlorobenzene is sometimes used as a deodorant for garbage and restrooms, as well as an insecticide for control of fruit borers and ants. May be applied to tobacco seed beds for blue mold control; for the control of peach tree borer; and mildew and mold on leather and fabrics. Gallery injections with 6 insecticides and 3 fumigants were tested for comparative effectiveness in controlling Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), and Paranthrene simulans (Grote). The three fumigants (carbon disulfide, Serafume, and paradichlorobenzene) provided complete control. The gallery injection technique was deemed feasible for use against borers in high-value trees. Gallery injection has advantages over bark sprays because it can give satisfactory control of borers already established in galleries and limits chemical application to a few galleries instead of entire trees or stands of trees. It is used as an additive in resin-bonded abrasive wheels to provide a more open structure, and vaporizes during the curing operation leaving pores and wider grain spacing. Hydrolysis of 1,4-dichlorobenzene with cupric salts and hydroxylamine gives the para-chlorophenols. Nitration of p-dichlorobenzene to yield 1,4-dichloro-2-nitrobenzene intermediate for dyestuff/. The reaction of p-dichlorobenzene with sodium sulfide in a polar organic solvent to produce poly(phenylene sulfide) An engineering plastic used for surface coatings and model resins/. Para-dichlorobenzene may have had minor use as an extreme-pressure lubricant. applications include use as an intermediate in organic synthesis and as on animal repellant. Use in pig stalls as an odor control agent
Consumption Patterns 35-40% FOR MOTH CONTROL; 35-40% AS SPACE DEODORANT; 25% OR LESS FOR MISC APPLICATIONS INCLUDING USE AS A DYE INTERMEDIATE AND IN INSECTICIDE MANUFACTURE (1972) Space deodorant, 55%; moth control, 35%; and other applications, 10% (1978) CHEMICAL PROFILE: p-Dichlorobenzene. Space deodorants, moth control agents and others, 34%; exports, 30%; polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) resin, 27%; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 9%. CHEMICAL PROFILE: p-Dichlorobenzene. Demand: 1986: 74 million lb; 1987: 77 million lb; 1991 projected/: 90 million lb.
Apparent Color White crystals ; MONOCLINIC PRISMS, LEAVES FROM ACETONE ; Available as pure crystals
Odor DISTINCTIVE AROMATIC ODOR BECOMES VERY STRONG AT CONCN BETWEEN 30 & 60 PPM ; Mothball like odor
Boiling Point 174 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point 53.1 DEG C
Molecular Weight 147.01
Density 1.2475 g/ml @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Sensitivity Data FUMES FROM SURFACE OF HOT P-DICHLOROBENZENE MAY IRRITATE SKIN SLIGHTLY WHEN CONTACT IS REPEATED OR PROLONGED. Exposure to p-dichlorobenzene may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. VAPORS AND SPRAYS ARE IRRITATING TO EYES, NOSE & THROAT.
Environmental Impact Chemical waste dump leachates and direct manufacturing effluents are reported to be the major source of pollution of the chlorobenzenes (including the dichlorbenzenes) to Lake Ontario. The major source of 1,4-dichlorobenzene emission to the atmosphere is volatilization from use in toilet bowl deodorants, garbage deodorants and moth flakes. If released to soil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene can be moderately to tightly adsorbed. Leaching from hazardous waste disposal areas has occured and the detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in various groundwaters indicates that leaching can occur. Volatilization from soil surfaces may be an important transport mechanism. It is possible that 1,4-dichlorobenzene will be slowly biodegraded in soil under aerobic conditions. Chemical transformation by hydrolysis, oxidation or direct photolysis are not expected to occur in soil. If released to water, volatilization may be the dominant removal process. The volatilization half-life from a model river one meter deep flowing one meter/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 4.3 hours at 20 deg C. Adsorption to sediment will be a major environmental fate process based upon extensive monitoring data in the Great Lakes area and Koc values based upon monitoring samples. Analysis of Lake Ontario sediment cores has indicated the presence and persistence of 1,4-dichlorobenzene since before 1940. Adsorption to sediment will attenuate volatilization. Aerobic biodegradation in water may be possible, however, anaerobic biodegradation is not expected to occur. For the most part, experimental BCF values reported in the literature are less than 1000 which suggests that significant bioconcentration will not occur; however, a BCF of 1800 was determined for guppies in one study. Aquatic hydrolysis, oxidation and direct photolysis are not expected to be important. If released to air, 1,4-dichlorobenzene will exist predominantly in the vapor-phase and will react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals at an estimated half-life rate of 31 days in typical atmosphere. Direct photolysis in the troposphere is not expected to be important. The detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in rain-water suggests that atmospheric removal via wash-out is possible. General population exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene may occur through oral consumption of contaminated drinking water and food (particularly fish) and through inhalation of contaminated air.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on experimental adsorption data, 1,4-dichlorobenzene can be moderately to tightly adsorbed in soil. Leaching from hazardous waste disposal areas in Niagara Falls to adjacent surface waters has been reported and the detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in various groundwaters indicates that leaching can occur. Volatilization from soil surfaces may be an important transport mechanism; however, volatilization may be attenuated by tight adsorption or leaching. It is possible that 1,4-dichlorobenzene will be slowly biodegraded in soil under aerobic conditions. Chemical transformation processes such as hydrolysis, oxidation or direct photolysis (on soil surfaces) are not expected to occur. AQUATIC FATE: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is volatile from water with an estimated half-life of 4.3 hours from a river one meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec at 20 deg C. Studies carried out in an experimental marine ecosystem found volatilization to be the major removal process for 1,4-dichlorobenzene . Volatilization was also found to be predominant elimination mechanism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene from Lake Zurich in Switzerland based on one-year monitoring studies and laboratory studies . Monitoring data based Koc values of 63000-100000 and extensive sediment monitoring data in the Great Lakes area indicate that adsorption to sediment is a major environmental fate process for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Its detection in Lake Ontario sediment cores indicates that 1,4-dichlorobenzene has persisted in these sediments since before 1940 . Adsorption to sediment in water will attenuate volatilization. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene may biodegrade in aerobic water after microbial adaptation; however, it is not expected to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions which may exist in lake sediments or various groundwaters. Experimental BCF values reported in the literature are less than 1000, for the most part, which suggests that significant bioconcentration will not occur; however, a BCF of 1800 was determined for guppies during one study. Aquatic hydrolysis, oxidation and direct photolysis are not expected to be important . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene will exist predominantly in the vapor-phase in the atmosphere. The half-life for the vapor-phase reaction of 1,4-dichlorobenzene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere has been estimated to be 31 days. Direct photolysis is not expected to be important. The detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in rainwater suggests that atmospheric removal via wash-out is possible.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: A mean 1,4-dichlorobenzene concn of 0.013 ppb was detected in drinking water samples from 3 cities near Lake Ontario in 1980 . Concn of 0.5 ppb was identified in Miami, FL drinking water and qualitative detections were reported for Philadelphia, PA and Cincinnati, OH . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was found in 9 of 945 finished water supplies throughout the USA that use groundwater sources at mean concn of 0.60-0.74 ppb . Qualitative detection was reported for Cleveland, OH tap water in 1975 . Dichlorobenzene isomers were found in drinking water in the vicinity of the Love Canal at levels of 10-800 ng/l . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected at levels below 1 ppb in an analysis of 30 potable Canadian water sources(6). Qualitative detection reported for 14 drinking water supply sources in the United Kingdom(7). GROUNDWATER: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was positively detected in 19 of 685 groundwaters analyzed in NJ during 1977-1979 with 995 ppb the highest concn found . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected in groundwater near Boulder, CO (0.5 ppb) and near Phoenix, AZ (0.07 ppb) at land application sites using rapid infiltration treatment of wastewaters . Concn ranging from not detected to 32.6 ppb were found in groundwater in Texas . 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected in groundwaters in the Netherlands at maximum concn of 3.0 ppb . SURFACE WATERS: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was detected in 26 of 463 surface waters analyzed in NJ during 1977-1979 with 30.5 ppb the highest concn found . Mean concentrations of 45, 4 and 10 parts per trillion detected in Lake Ontario, Lake Huron and Grand River water, respectively, during 1980; concn of 1-94 parts per trillion found in the Niagara River . Concn of 9.0-310 parts per trillion (mean concn of 36 parts per trillion) detected in Niagara River at Niagara-On-The-Lake between 1981 and 1983 . Concn of 8.7-110 parts per trillion (mean concn of 24 parts per trillion) detected in the Niagara River between 1981 and 1983 . An average concn of 48 parts per trillion was found in the Niagara River near Niagara-On-The-Lake between Sept and Oct 1982 . Positive detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was reported by 3.0% of 8576 USEPA STORET stations(6). Qualitative detection reported for Delaware and Raritan Canal in NJ(7). Concn below 0.5 ppb detected in the Rhine River between 1978-1982(8). An average concn of 0.19 ppb found in the Rhine River near Dusseldorf in 1984(9). SEA WATER: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene was qualitatively detected not quantified in the water column of the Narragansett Bay near Rhode Island . RAIN/SNOW: A mean 1,4-dichlorobenzene concn of 0.66 parts per trillion was detected in Portland, OR rainwater during March-Apr 1982 ; a mean concn of 5.5 arts per trillion detected in Portland, OR rainwater during Oct-Dec 1982 . Average concn of 4.1 parts per trillion found in Portland, OR rainwater during 1984 . EFFL: The wastewater effluents from four activated sludge waste-water treatment plants discharging into the Grand River and Lake Ontario contained a mean 1,4-dichlorobenzene concn of 660 parts per trillion during 1980 sampling . Positive detection of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was reported by 1.7% of 1306 USEPA STORET stations . Concn of 0.4-100 ppb were detected in Southern California municipal wastewater effluents in 1976 . Mean concn of 3.0 and 3.1 ppb were found in the final effluents of the Los Angeles County municipal wastewater treatment plant in July 1978 and Nov 1980, respectively . Qualitative detection reported for chemical plant and sewage treatment plant effluents at unspecified facilities in the USA . Concn of 7.7-16 ppb were detected in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills in Minnesota(6). Concn of 7-40 ppb found in leachate associated groundwater beneath a municipal landfill in Ontario, Canada(7). The dichlorobenzene isomers were qualitatively detected in waters adjacent to hazardous waste disposal areas in Niagara Falls, NY as a result of leaching(8). Ambient mean air concn of 0.03-4.19 ppb were detected above six abandoned hazardous waste sites in NJ as a result of volatile emanations(9). Flue gas effluents from a municipal refuse-fired steam boiler in Virginia contained 4.4 ug/cu m of the dichlorobenzene isomers(10); flue gas effluents from a refuse-derived-fired power plant in Ohio contained 7.8 ng/cu m of the dichlorobenzene isomers(10).

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