|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| TANNING HIDES; MAKING GELATIN INSOL; STRENGTHENING ANIMAL
FOR P-BENZOQUINONEDIOXIME, A RUBBER ACCELERATOR, FOR QUINHYDRONE
USED IN PH ELECTRODES, FOR 2,3-DICHLORO-5,6-DICYANOBENZOQUINONE;
CHEM INTERMEDIATE FOR DYES-EG, VAT YELLOW 5 (FORMER USE)
USED IN COSMETIC INDUSTRIES PRIMARILY BECAUSE OF ITS ABILITY TO
TRANSFORM CERTAIN NITROGEN-CONTAINING CMPD INTO VARIETY OF
1,4-Benzoquinone is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyesters as a polymerization
Raw material for hydroquinone
1,4-Benzoquinone reacts with trialkylboranes to produce alkyl substituted hydroquinones
In the manufacture of fungicides; as an analytical reagent; an oxidizing agent and in photography.
In adhesive mixtures
In coal analysis (dehydrogenation of coal)
Determination of amino acids by the formation of red charge-transfer complexes.
/Used in pharmaceutical industry for production of cortisone & addition cmpd with barbiturates;
use in polymer & resins industry; use as a tanning agent for leather industry; use in mfr of
quinhydrone electrodes for use for pH determinations.
|Apparent Color|| YELLOW MONOCLINIC PRISMS FROM WATER OR PETROLEUM ETHER ;
|Odor|| PENETRATING ODOR RESEMBLING THAT OF CHLORINE ; Acrid
|Melting Point|| 115.7 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 108.09
|Density|| 1.318 AT 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| 0.4000 mg/cu m (low); 0.4000 mg/cu m (high); 2.00 mg/cu m (irritating concentration)
|Sensitivity Data|| Solid quinone in contact with skin produce severe irritation. Quinone vapor is
highly irritating to eyes.
Irritates mucous membranes, especially to cornea .
|Environmental Impact|| 1,4-Benzoquinone may be released to the environment in effluents during its commercial
production and use and in wastewaters from the coal industry. If released to the soil it is
susceptible to leaching (estimated Koc of 30) and may be susceptible to volatilization and
photodegradation on soil surfaces. A single degradation study found benzoquinone to be rapidly
degraded in a chernozem soil to stable metabolites. Sufficient data are not available to predict the
significance of biodegradation in either soil or water. If released to the aquatic environment, it
may be degraded by photolysis as it absorbs UV radiation. In water, benzoquinone is not expected
to volatilize, adsorb to particulate matter or sediment or bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. If
released to the atmosphere in vapor-phase, it will react rapidly with both hydroxyl radicals and
ozone (combined estimated half-life of 33.6 minutes) and may be susceptible to direct photolysis.
Particulate associated benzoquinone released to the atmosphere may be susceptible to physical
removal via dry deposition or wash-out. The ambient atmospheric concentration of benzoquinone
has been reported to be less than 15 to 80 ng/cu m and benzoquinone has been detected in
tobacco smoke. Inhalation appears to be the most significant route of human exposure.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: 1,4-Benzoquinone was degraded very fast in a chernozem
(CEC>20; BS>50) soil (persistence time not reported) leaving soil stable metabolite residues ;
the fate processes by which the benzoquinone was degraded in this chernozem soil were not
reported. Based on its log Kow value, benzoquinone is expected to have high mobility in
soil predicting that leaching into groundwater is possible. Benzoquinone on soil surfaces
may be susceptible to volatilization and photodegradation. Sufficient data are not available
to predict the significance of biodegradation.
AQUATIC FATE: Benzoquinone released to the aquatic environment is not expected to
significantly volatilize adsorb to soils or sediments, or bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Since
it absorbs UV radiation in environmentally significant wavelengths, direct photolysis is possible.
Sufficient data are not available to predict the significance of biodegradation.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Benzoquinone released to the atmosphere in vapor phase will react
rapidly with both hydroxyl radicals and ozone with a combined estimated half-life of 33.6 minutes.
Since it absorbs UV radiation in environmentally significant wavelengths, direct photolysis is also
possible. Physical removal of benzoquinone associated with particulate matter from the
atmosphere via dry deposition or wash-out may occur.
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: 1,4-Benzoquinone has been found as a pollutant in filtered
surface water at a water treatment plant.
GROUNDWATER: 1,4-Benzoquinone has been found as a pollutant in filtered ground
water at a water treatment plant.