SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 107028
CASRN 107-02-8
SynonymsAcrolein
2-Propenal
Acrylic aldehyde
Acrylaldehyde
Acraldehyde
Analytical Methods EPA Method 603
EPA Method 8030
EPA Method 8260
EPA Method 8315
Molecular FormulaC3H4O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use MFR COLLOIDAL FORMS OF METALS; MAKING PLASTICS, PERFUMES; WARNING AGENT IN METHYL CHLORIDE REFRIGERANT; HAS BEEN USED IN MILITARY POISON GAS MIXTURES CHEMICAL INT IN SYNTH OF GLYCERIN, ACRYLIC ACID, & ESTERS; PESTICIDE Intermediate for glycerol, polyurethane, polyester resins, & pharmaceuticals AQUATIC HERBICIDE, BIOCIDE, SLIMICIDE MOLLUSCICIDE FOR CONTROL OF SUBMERGED WEEDS (POTAMOGETON, NAJAS, ZANNICHELLIA, CERATOPHYLLUM, SPIROGYRA, & OTHERS) & FLOATING WEEDS (WATER CRESS, WATER HYACINTH & WATER PRIMROSE) IN IRRIGATION CANALS, DITCHES. ALSO AN ALGICIDE. Used as a liquid fuel Chemical intermediate for DL-methionine, its hydroxy analog, and their salts; as a microbiocide in oil wells; Used to make modified food starch Acrolein has received quite a bit of attention as a tissue-fixative in histological work. This property has been utilized for the preservation of red blood cells In world War I, it was used as a tear gas under the name Papite.
Consumption Patterns The largest market for acrolein is for methionine manufacture (1978)
Apparent Color COLORLESS OR YELLOWISH LIQUID
Odor Extremely sharp; Piercingly disagreeable; Extremely acrid, pungent ; Burnt, sweet
Boiling Point 52.5 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point -88 DEG C
Molecular Weight 56.06
Density 0.8389 @ 20 DEG C; 0.8621 @ 0 DEG C; 0.8075 @ 50 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 0.21 PPM PURITY NOT SPECIFIED Air: 0.16 ul/l; Water: 0.11 mg/l; Odor safety class D; D= 10-50% of attentive persons can detect TLV concn in the air Low= 0.0525 mg/cu m; High= 37.5000 mg/cu m; Irritating concn= 1.25 mg/cu m.
Sensitivity Data Acrolein produces intense irritation to the eye and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. Intense lacrimation & nasal irritation The general sequence of acrolein irritation is concentration-time dependent eg, 1 ppm for 1 min gives slight nasal irritation; 1 ppm for 5 min gives intolerable eye irritation; 5.5 ppm for 5 seconds gives moderate eye irritation; & 5.5 ppm for 1 min produces marked lacrimation.
Environmental Impact Acrolein is released to the environment: (a) in emissions and effluents from its manufacturing plants and facilities which use this compound as an intermediate, (b) in exhaust gas from combustion processes, (c) from direct application to water and wastewater during use as an aquatic herbicide and slimicide, and (d) as a photooxidation product of various hydrocarbon pollutants found in air including 1,3-butadiene. If released to moist soil, acrolein is expected to be susceptible to extensive leaching. Biodegradation under aerobic conditions may be an important fate process. Acrolein is predicted to volatilize rapidly from dry soil surfaces. If released to water, acrolein may biodegrade under aerobic conditions, volatilize (half-life of 7 hours from a model river), or undergo reversible hydration to beta-hydroxypropionaldehyde (half life of 21 days). The overall half-life of acrolein in water is reported to range between 2 to 6 days. Bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, adsorption to suspended solids and sediments, reaction with singlet oxygen or alkylperoxy radicals, and photolysis are not expected to be important fate processes in water. If released to the atmosphere, the dominant removal mechanism is expected to be reaction of acrolein vapor with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 10-13 hrs). Products of this reaction include: carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde, and in the presence of nitrogen oxides include: peroxynitrate and nitric acid. Small amounts of this compound may be removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Reaction with ozone and direct photolysis are not expected to be important fate processes in the atmosphere. The most probable routes of exposure to acrolein by the general population are inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of foods which contain this compound. Worker exposure may occur by dermal contact and/or inhalation.
Environmental Fate AQUATIC FATE: EXPTL DATA FOR DECAY OF ACROLEIN IN WATER INDICATE APPROX 1ST ORDER KINETICS. THE REACTION CONTINUED TO COMPLETION IN NATURAL WATER. DATA ON EFFECTS OF PH ON DECAY OF ACROLEIN MAY BE USED AS A CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATE OF DISSIPATION RATE. IN WATER FLOWING IN 2 CHANNELS, AN 8 TO 10 FOLD DISCREPANCY BETWEEN OBSERVED & PREDICTED RATES OF DISSIPATION WAS ATTRIBUTED TO MAJOR LOSSES IN VOLATILIZATION & ADSORPTION. A RELATIVELY NONVOLATILE REACTION PRODUCT (WHICH GAVE A POSITIVE REACTION WITH DINITROPHENYLHYDRAZINE) ACCUMULATED INITIALLY BUT DISSIPATED. TERRESTRIAL FATE: In the terrestrial environment, it is estimated that acrolein would have a low tendency to adsorb on soil and would probably volatilize into the air or be leached from the soil by water. AQUATIC FATE: Half-life in water at pH 5, 150 hr; at pH 7, 120-180 hr; at pH 9, 5 to 40 hr. AQUATIC FATE: Acrolein is removed from aqueous environments, with half-lives usually on the order of less than a day. The primary loss process appears to be an initial hydration (and possibly some biotransformation) to beta-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which is then further biotransformed. Due to its high vapor pressure and water solubility, acrolein is expected to be highly mobile when released into the environment, although degradative processes are likely to limit its transport. AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, acrolein may biodegrade under aerobic conditions, volatilize (half-life = 7 hours from a model river), or undergo reversible hydration to beta-hydroxypropionaldehyde (half-life = 21 days). Bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, adsorption to suspended solids and sediments, reaction with singlet oxygen or alkylperoxy radicals, and photolysis are not expected to be important fate processes. It is reported that acrolein applied to natural waters at rates suggested for herbicidal use will persist up to 6 days depending on water temperature . Acrolein added to irrigation channels at initial concentrations of 6.1, 17.5 and 50.5 ppm underwent 100% loss in 12.5 days . Removal rate constants ranging from 0.27-0.34 1/days were calculated by linear regression. These values correspond to half-lives of 2.0-2.5 days . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, acrolein is expected to exist almost entirely in the vapor phase based on a vapor pressure of 220 mm Hg at 20 deg C(1,2,SRC). The dominant removal mechanism is expected to be reaction with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (t1/2 10-13 hours). Products of this reaction include: carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. In the presence of nitrogen oxides products include peroxynitrate and nitric acid. Detection of acrolein in rainwater samples suggests that small amounts of this compound may be removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Reaction with ozone and direct photolysis are not expected to be important fate processes.
Drinking Water Impact SURFACE WATER: USEPA STORET Data Base - 798 water samples, 0.25% pos., median concn <14 ug/l . EFFL: Present in 6 out of 11 samples of municipal effluent from Dayton, OH, concn range 20-200 ug/l . Detected in raw sewage in 2 sewage treatment plants in Chicago at concn ranging from 216-825 ug/l; although concn in final effluents were below 100 ug/l . USEPA STORET Data Base - 1265 effluent samples, 1.5% pos., median concn <10.0 ug/l . Acrolein has been identified in emissions from: plants manufacturing acrylic acid, not quantified; coffee roasting operations, ND-0.6 mg/cu m (detection limit not reported); from a lithographic plate coater, <0.23-3.9 mg/cu m; and from an automobile spray booth, 1.1-1.6 mg/cu m . Detected om 1 out of 5 leachate samples from a Wisconsin municipal solid waste landfill .

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