|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||1,2-Dichloroethane||Ethylene dichloride||EDC||Ethane, 1,2-dichloro-
||EPA Method 502.2||EPA Method 524.2
||EPA Method 601
||EPA Method 624
||EPA Method 8010
||EPA Method 8021
||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| MANUFACTURE OF ACETYL CELLULOSE, TOBACCO EXTRACT.
In paint, varnish and finish removers; soaps & scouring compounds; wetting and penetrating
agents; ore flotation; lead scavenger in antiknock gasoline; prodn of vinyl chloride,
trichloroethylene, vinylidene chloride & trichloroethane.
FUMIGANT FOR GRAIN, UPHOLSTERY & CARPETS; REGISTERED FOR AGRIC USE
IN THE USA FOR POSTHARVEST FUMIGATION OF GRAIN & FOR USE IN
ORCHARDS, AGRIC PREMISES AND MUSHROOM HOUSES.
In leather cleaning, rubber goods fabrication, drum filling, and metal cleaning industries.
In degreaser compounds, rubber cement, and acrylic adhesives.
Catalyst in production of hexachlorophene.
Solvent for processing pharmaceutical products.
CHEM INT FOR TETRACHLOROETHYLENE.
MANUFACTURE OF ETHYLENEDIAMINE, SUCCINONITRILE, GLYCOL ETHERS &
CHEM INT FOR ETHYLENEIMINE.
CHEM INT FOR POLYSULFIDE ELASTOMERS.
Manufacture of ethylene glycol, diaminoethylene, polyvinyl chloride, nylon, viscose rayon,
styrene-butadiene rubber, and various plastics; solvent for resins, asphalt, bitumen, rubber; used as
pickling agent and a dry clean agent; in photography, xerography, water softening & in
production of cosmetics.
Use in extracting spices such as annatto, paprika & turmeric.
Used as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes, gums resins, and particularly rubber.
|Consumption Patterns|| Demand: 1982, 9.10 billion lb; 1983, 10.4 billion lb; 1987, 12.1 billion lb.
CHEM INT FOR VINYL CHLORIDE, 84%; CHEM INT FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENTS
(EG, 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE, TRICHLOROETHYLENE), 4%; CHEM INT FOR
VINYLIDINE CHLORIDE, 2%; EXPORTS, 9%; OTHER, 1% (1982)
Vinyl chloride monomer, 97%; chlorinated solvents, 2%; miscellaneous, 1% (1985)
|Apparent Color|| CLEAR, COLORLESS, OILY LIQUID
|Odor|| PLEASANT ODOR ; CHLOROFORM-LIKE ODOR ; Sweet
|Density|| 1.2351 AT 20 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Although olfactory warning properties are limited by development of tolerance, this
liquid has an odor detectable between 6 & 40 ppm.
Of 20 subjects, 13 could detect ethylene dichloride at 6 ppm (23.2-24.9 mg/cu m), 6 persons
could detect it at 4.5 ppm (17.5 mg/cu m), and 1 person at 3 ppm (12.2 mg/cu m).
Odor is not a dependable guide for avoiding dangerous chronic exposures to EDC. The odor may
be considered pleasant until well above 180 ppm, and may be missed below 100 ppm.
Detection in air= 2.5X10-2 mg/l (gas), chemically pure
Odor threshold low: 24 mg/cu m; high: 440 mg/cu m.
|Environmental Impact|| The majority of 1,2-dichloroethane released into the environment will enter the
atmosphere mostly from its production and use as a chemical intermediate, solvent, and use as a
lead scavenger in gasoline. Once in the atmosphere, it may be transported long distances and is
primarily removed by photooxidation (half-life approx 1 month). Releases to water will primarily
be removed by evaporation (half-life several hours to 10 days). Releases on land will dissipate by
volatilization to air and by percolation into groundwater where it is likely to persist for a very long
time. 1,2-Dichloroethane is not expected to bioconcentrate in the food chain; its presence in some
food products is probably due to its use as an extractant. Major human exposure is from urban air,
drinking water from contaminated aquifers and occupational atmospheres.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Smaller releases on land will evaporate fairly rapidly because of
1,2-dichlorethane's moderately high vapor pressure. Larger releases may leach rapidly through
sandy soil into groundwater.
AQUATIC FATE: When 1,2-dichloroethane is released to surface water, its primary loss will be
by evaporation. The half-life for evaporation will depend on wind and mixing conditions and was
of the order of hours in the laboratory. However a modeling study using the EXAMS model for a
eutrophic lake gave a half-life of 10 days . The half-life for evaporation would be much less in a
river or stream. Chemical and biological degradation is expected to be very slow.
Adsorption to sediment is not expected.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: When released to the atmosphere, 1,2-dichloroethane will degrade by
reaction with hydroxyl radicals which are formed photochemically in the atmosphere with a
half-life of a little over a month. One would expect the chemical to be transported long distances
and be washed out in rain.
Aquatic and Atmospheric Fate: Chloroethanes are expected to be present in industrial air and
water emissions. They volatilize rapidly from surface water and persist in urban atmospheres.
Hydrolysis and biodegradation are expected to be slow. Chloroethanes
|Drinking Water Impact|| 1,2-Dichloroethane was found in the waters of 28 cities at level of 0-6 ug/l.
The Aerojet-General Corporation reports that 1,2-dichloroethane has been identified as a
groundwater contaminant at a site outside Sacramento, CA.
SURFACE WATER: USA - 6 river basins 1-90 ppb, 53 of 204 sites pos, only 1 site above 15
ppb ; Ohio R basin (1977-1978) 0.1-29 ppb, 39 of 243 samples pos ; Ohio R basin
(1980-1981, 4972 samples) 7% pos, 44 samples 1-10 ppb ; 105 USA cities - raw drinking
water 1-4 ppb, 0.55 ppb median, 9.5% pos ; 80 USA municipal water systems - raw water
0-0.3 ppb, 14% pos ; Lake Erie - 2 sites, 4 ppb, 1 site pos(6).
SEAWATER: Gulf of Mexico 0-210 parts/trillion (anthropogenic influence) and not detected
(unpolluted areas) .
GROUNDWATER: 13 USA cities - raw groundwater 0.2 ppb, 7.7% pos ; State groundwater
survey - 2 states 400 ppb max, 7% pos , Aerojet General Rocket Plant - well water,
Sacramento - up to 52 ppm .
DRINKING WATER: 133 USA Cities - finished surface water 0.8-4.8 ppb, 1.8 ppb median,
4.5% pos ; 25 USA cities - finished groundwater - 0.2 ppb avg, 4.0% pos . National Organic
Monitoring Survey (1976-77) - 3 of 218 samples pos, limits of detection <0.2 ppb . Detected in
7 wells in the Central Sands area of Wisconsin 2 of which exceeded the recommended health
advisory of 7 ppb (detection limit= 0.1-3.0 ppb) .
EFFL: Industries whose wastewater may exceed a mean of 1000 ppb include: photographic
equipment/supplies, pharmaceutical mfg and organic chemicals/plastics mfg; max concn in
wastewater was 14 ppm (pharmaceutical mfg) .