|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 524.2|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| Used as an intermediate
Chloroacetonitrile's major uses as an organic intermediate in the manufacture of the insecticide
fenoxycarb and the cardiovascular drug guanethidine.
|Apparent Color|| Colorless liquid
|Molecular Weight|| 75.50
|Sensitivity Data|| Irritant
Immediately irritating to the eye. Cyanides
|Environmental Impact|| Chloroacetonitrile may be released to the environment in wastewater streams that have
undergone chlorination treatment; chloroacetonitriles can be formed through chlorination of
aquatic humic materials. If released to water, chloroacetonitrile can be transported to air through
volatilization. Volatilization half-lives of 16 hr and 7.3 days have been estimated for a model river
and environmental pond, respectively. If released to soil, chloroacetonitrile may leach readily
based upon an estimated Koc value of 40. Surface evaporation may occur from soil surfaces.
Insufficient data are available to predict the relative importance of biodegradation in soil or water.
If released to the atmosphere, chloroacetonitrile will degrade slowly by reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 360 days). Physical removal from air via
wet deposition is possible since it is relatively soluble in water; physical removal may be important
since the degradation rate in air is slow. Occupational exposure to chloroacetonitrile occurs
through inhalation of vapor and dermal contact. Exposure may occur through ingestion of
contaminated drinking water.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Using a measured log octanol-water partition coefficient of
0.45 , a Koc value of 42 can be estimated from a regression-derived equation(2,SRC);
according to a suggested classification scheme , this estimated Koc suggests that
chloroacetonitrile will leach readily in soil. Insufficient data are available to predict the
relative importance of biodegradation. Chloroacetonitrile's vapor pressure of 15 mm Hg at
30 deg C suggests that it will evaporate from dry surfaces.
AQUATIC FATE: Volatilization may be an important transport process for chloroacetonitrile in
water. Volatilization half-lives of 16 hr and 7.3 days have been estimated for a model river (one
meter deep) and environmental pond (2 meters deep), respectively(1-2,SRC). Using a measured
log octanol-water partition coefficient of 0.45 , Koc and BCF values of 42 and 1 can be
estimated from regression-derived equations(1,SRC) which suggest that adsorption to sediment
and bioconcentration are not important fate processes. Insufficient data are available to
predict the relative importance of biodegradation.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 15 mm Hg at 30 deg C ,
chloroacetonitrile is expected to exist almost entirely in the vapor-phase in the ambient
atmosphere(2,SRC). It will degrade slowly in the ambient atmosphere by reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of about 360 days)(3,SRC).
Chloroacetonitrile's estimated (from log Kow) solubility in water, 73700 mg/L at 25 deg C ,
suggests that physical removal from air via wet deposition is possible; physical removal may
be important since the degradation rate is slow.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Chloroacetonitrile was qualitatively detected in drinking water
samples collected in Miami, FL on Feb 3, 1976 .
EFFL: Chloroacetonitrile has been qualitatively detected in a wastewater effluent collected from
the electronics industry (source and sampling date not reported) .