SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 108316
CASRN 108-31-6
SynonymsMaleic anhydride
2,5-Furandione
cis-Butenedioic acid anhydride
Toxilic anhydride
Molecular FormulaC4H2O3

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use IN DIELS-ALDER SYNTHESES (AS A DIENOPHILE), IN CO-POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS; MANUFACTURE OF ALKYD-TYPE OF RESINS, DYE INTERMEDIATES, PHARMACEUTICALS, AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS (MALEIC HYDRAZIDE, MALATHION). FUMARIC AND TARTARIC ACID MFR; PESTICIDES; PRESERVATIVE FOR OILS AND FATS; PERMANENT-PRESS RESINS (TEXTILES). CHEM INT FOR LUBE OIL DISPERSANTS & CORROSION INHIBITORS COMONOMER FOR OTHER COPOLYMERS-EG, WITH STYRENE CHEM INT FOR MALIC ACID CHEM INT FOR INSECTICIDES-EG, MALATHION CHEM INT FOR FUNGICIDES-EG, CAPTAN & DIFOLATAN CHEM INT FOR HERBICIDES-EG, ENDOTHALL CHEM INT FOR SURFACTANTS-EG, ALKYL SULFOSUCCINATES CHEM INT FOR CHLORENDIC ANHYDRIDE & ACID CHEM INT FOR ROSIN ADDUCTS CHEM INT FOR PHARMACEUTICALS OTHER CHEM INT USES-EG, FOR TETRAHYDROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE CHEM INT FOR REACTIVE PLASTICIZERS-EG, DIBUTYLMALEATE COMONOMER FOR DIISOBUTYLENE COPOLYMER SURFACTANT Lube oil additives, textile finishing agents, intermediate for unsaturated polyesters. Ingredient in bonding agents used to manufacture plywood. Used in the manufacture of coating resins and polyester resins for plastics.
Consumption Patterns COMONOMER FOR UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESINS, 52%; CHEM INT FOR LUBE OIL ADDITIVES, 12%; CHEM INT FOR FUMARIC ACID, 11%; CHEM INT FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS, 9%; COMONOMER FOR OTHER COPOLYMERS, 5%; CHEM INT FOR MALIC ACID, 4%; ALL OTHER USES, 7% (1981) End use pattern: Unsaturated polyester resins, 53%; fumaric & malic acid, 10%; agricultural chem, 8%; lube oil additives, 7%; maleic co-polymers, 7%; miscellaneous, 16% (1985) CHEMICAL PROFILE: Maleic Anhydride. Unsaturated polyester resins, 51%; lube oil additives, 12%; food acidulants (fumaric and malic acids), 14%; copolymers, 7%; agricultural chemicals, 6%; exports, 5%; miscellaneous, 5%. CHEMICAL PROFILE: Maleic anhydride. Demand: 1988: 429 million lb; 1989: 446 million lb; 1993 projected/: 520 million lb. (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 2.5 million lb last year).
Apparent Color ORTHORHOMBIC NEEDLES FROM CHLOROFORM; COMMERCIAL GRADES IN FUSED FORM, AS BRIQUETTES ; COLORLESS NEEDLES OR WHITE LUMPS OR PELLETS ; NEEDLES FROM CHLOROFORM OR ETHER
Odor IRRITATING ODOR ; CHOKING ODOR
Boiling Point 202.0 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point 52.8 DEG C
Molecular Weight 98.06
Density 1.48
Odor Threshold Concentration Odor low: 1.84 mg/m; Odor high: 1.96 mg/m
Sensitivity Data INHALATION CAUSES COUGHING, SNEEZING, THROAT IRRITATION. SKIN CONTACT CAUSES IRRITATION AND REDNESS. VAPORS CAUSE SEVERE EYE IRRITATION; PHOTOPHOBIA AND DOUBLE VISION MAY OCCUR.
Environmental Impact Maleic anhydride is an important industrial chemical used as a chemical intermediate or in the production of resins and coatings. Since it hydrolyzes rapidly in water to the acid, maleic anhydride would not appear in wastewater and would quickly degrade to maleic acid if spilled in water. If emitted to the atmosphere from fugitive emissions or vent gases, it will degrade in a few hours by reaction with ozone or photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals. If spilled on land its fate is unknown but it is apt to biodegrade or hydrolyze. Exposure to maleic anhydride would be primarily limited to occupational settings.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Maleic anhydride's fate in soil is unknown. Since it biodegrades in sewage treatment plants and hydrolyzes, it's likely that it will degrade in soil. A combination of these processes should be important. AQUATIC FATE: Maleic anhydride released into water will hydrolyze rapidly (half-life 0.37 min) to maleic acid. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Maleic anhydride released into the atmosphere will degrade by reaction with ozone and photochemically produced hydroxyl radical (estimated half-life 1.7 hr).

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