|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||n-Butyl chloride||Butane, 1-chloro-||1-Chlorobutane
||EPA Method 524.2|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| SOLVENT; INT IN SYNTHESIS OF ALKYLATED ANILINES
Key intermediate for organotin stabilizer
Reacts with lithium metal in hydrocarbon media, eg, hexane and cyclohexane, to yield n-butyl
lithium the most important organolithium compound
Reacts with magnesium metal in a hydrocarbon solvent to produce di-n-butylmagnesium
Chain transfer agent in styrene polymerization to reduce the molecular weight of the polymer
Medication (Vet): Anthelmintic
BUTYLATING AGENT IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQ
|Boiling Point|| 78.5 deg C @ 760 mm Hg
|Melting Point|| -123.1 deg C
|Molecular Weight|| 92.57
|Density|| 0.88098 @ 25 deg C/4 deg C; 0.89197 @ 15 deg C/4 deg C; 0.88648 @ 20 deg C/4 deg
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Odor low: 3.3352 mg/cu m; Odor high: 6.3293 mg/cu m
|Sensitivity Data|| Skin, eye irritant
|Environmental Impact|| Environmental emissions of n-butyl chloride arise from process and fugitive emissions
and waste water from its production and use as an alkylating agent and evaporation from its use
as a solvent. There is also evidence that it may be formed during chlorination of waste water.
n-Butyl chloride has a high vapor pressure and Henry's Law constant. In addition it has a low
adsorptivity to soil. Therefore releases to the land or water will partition, to a large extent, to the
atmosphere. Limited data suggests that biodegradation is slow. It's rate of hydrolysis is unknown
and estimates of its rate from analogous compounds indicate that hydrolysis could not compete
with volatilization as a fate process except in groundwater. If released in surface water, the
volatilization half-life in a model river and pond are estimated to be 2.9 hr and 34 hr, respectively.
In the atmosphere, n-butyl chloride will degrade by reaction with photochemically produced
hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere with a half-life of 7.0 days. Human exposure will be primarily
occupational by inhalation and dermal contact.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: n-Butyl chloride has a very high vapor pressure, 100 mm Hg at
25 deg C , indicating that volatilization from soil will be rapid and a primary removal process. It
has an estimated low adsorptivity to soil (Koc = 93-102)(1-2) and therefore would be mobile in
soil. Biodegradation in soil is unknown.
AQUATIC FATE: If released in water, n-butyl chloride will be lost rapidly by volatilization. Its
estimated volatilization half-life in a model river and pond are 2.9 hr(1-2) and 34 hr ,
respectively. In groundwater, where volatilization may not occur, n-butyl chloride may be lost by
hydrolysis. Based upon hydrolysis rates for alkyl chlorides, the half-life is estimated to be between
6 hr and 38 days at neutral pH . The half-life at higher pHs will be shorter. Photodegradation,
adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration in fish are not important aquatic fate
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: n-Butyl chloride will degrade via reaction with photochemically
produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere. The half-life of n-butyl chloride in the atmosphere
is estimated to be 7.0 days . n-Butyl chloride does not absorb radiation >290 nm and therefore
it will not directly photolyze . Due to its water solubility, 1100 mg/l , washout by rain should
occur. However, n-butyl chloride removed in this manner will revolatilize into the
Maximum permissible concentrations in open waters are 0.004 mg/l.
EFFL: In a study of 63 industrial effluents that discharge into surface waters, chlorobutane was
found in one effluent at a concentration of <10 ug/l .