SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 109773
CASRN 109-77-3
SynonymsMalononitrile
Propanedinitrile
Methane, dicyano-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaC3H2N2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use ORGANIC SYNTHESIS; LEACHING AGENT FOR GOLD Used as lubricating oil additive; thiamine synthesis; anti-cancer agent synthesis; photosensitizer, acrylic fiber and dyestuff synthesis.
Apparent Color WHITE POWDER; COLORLESS SOLID
Boiling Point 218-219 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point 32 DEG C
Molecular Weight 66.06
Density 1.1910 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Sensitivity Data Immediately irritating to the eye. Cyanides
Environmental Impact Malononitrile may be released to the environment in wastewater effluents associated with its use in gold ore leaching and as a chemical intermediate. If released to the atmosphere, malononitrile will exist primarily in the vapor phase. Atmospheric degradation via photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is slow (estimated half-life of 2.67 yr). Removal from the atmosphere can occur through wet deposition and hydrolysis in cloud water. If released to water or moist soil, malononitrile will degrade through hydrolysis. At 25 deg C, the aqueous hydrolysis half-life has been experimentally determined to vary from 21.4 days at pH 5 to 3.1 days at pH 9. Insufficient data are available to predict the importance of biodegradation in soil or water. Occupational exposure to malononitrile can occur through inhalation of vapor and dermal contact. There are no data available to suggest that the general population is exposed to malononitrile.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: The major degradation process for malononitrile in moist soil may be hydrolysis. At 25 deg C, the aqueous hydrolysis half-life has been experimentally determined to vary from 21.4 days at pH 5 to 3.1 days at pH 9(1,SRC). Insufficient data are available to predict the importance of biodegradation. One microbial screening study has demonstrated that malononitrile can be toxic to activated sludge microorganisms at a relatively high conc of 500 mg/L . Based upon an estimated Koc value of 6.6, malononitrile should leach readily in soil(3,SRC); the importance of leaching may be lessened, however, by concurrent hydrolysis. AQUATIC FATE: The major degradation process for malononitrile in water may be hydrolysis. At 25 deg C, the hydrolysis half-life has been experimentally determined to vary from 21.4 days at pH 5 to 3.1 days at pH 9(1,SRC). Insufficient data are available to predict the importance of biodegradation. One microbial screening study has demonstrated that malononitrile can be toxic to activated sludge microorganisms at a relatively high conc of 500 mg/L . Aquatic volatilization, bioconcentration, direct photolysis, and adsorption to sediment are not expected to be environmentally important. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Using measured vapor pressures of 11 mm Hg at 99 deg C and 20 mm Hg at 109 deg C , the vapor pressure of malononitrile can be extrapolated to 0.015 mm Hg at 25 deg C using the Antoine relationship. Based upon this vapor pressure, malononitrile is expected to exist primarily in the vapor-phase in the ambient atmosphere(2,SRC). It is expected to degrade very slowly in an average ambient atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of about 2.67 yr(3,SRC). Due to its high water solubility, malononitrile should be susceptible to wet deposition processes such as physical removal via rainfall. The half-life for the aqueous hydrolysis of malononitrile at 25 deg C in acidic to neutral conditions is about 20-21 days(4,SRC).

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