|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| SOLVENT FOR LACQUERS AND RESINS; PAINT & VARNISH REMOVER; IN THE
EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS; IN ANALYTICAL CHEM FOR MOLECULAR WT
DETERMINATION; IN THE MFR OF BENZENE, CYCLOHEXANONE,
CYCLOHEXANOL, CYCLOHEXYL CHLORIDE, NITROCYCLOHEXANE, SOLID FUEL
FOR CAMP STOVES; IN INDUSTRIAL RECRYSTALLIZATION OF STEROIDS; IN
FUNGICIDAL FORMULATIONS- HAS SLIGHT FUNGICIDAL ACTION
SYNTHETIC RUBBER SOLVENT; IN PERFUME INDUSTRY- SOLVENT FOR FATS,
CHEM INT FOR ADIPIC ACID, CAPROLACTAM, 1,6-HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE, &
FOR MISC APPLICATIONS
|Consumption Patterns|| 52% FOR ADIPIC ACID; 21% EXPORTED; 19% FOR CAPROLACTAM; 4% FOR
1,6-HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE; 4% FOR MISC APPLCNS (1971)
65% FOR ADIPIC ACID; 32% FOR CAPROLACTAM; 3% FOR MISC (1984 EST)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Cyclohexane. Adipic acid for nylon 66, 57%; caprolactam for nylon 6,
29%; exports, 13%; other, 1%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Cyclohexane. Demand: 1985: 234 million gallons; 1986: 279 million
gallons; 1990 projected/: 308 million gallons.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Cyclohexane. Adipic acid for nylon 6/6, 60%; caprolactam for nylon 6,
25%; exports, 12%; other, 3%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Cyclohexane. Demand: 1988: 355 million gallons; 1989: 360 million
gallons; 1993 projected/: 390 million gallons. (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 6
million gallons last year.)
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS MOBILE LIQUID
|Odor|| SOLVENT ODOR; PUNGENT WHEN IMPURE ; Mild sweet odor ; Petroleum-like
odor ; Chloroform-like odor
|Boiling Point|| 80.7 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| 6.47 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 84.18
|Density|| 0.7781 AT 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| 300 PPM WAS DETECTABLE BY ODOR
Detection in air: 3.56x10-5 g/l
Detection in air: 2.02x10-4 g/l
|Sensitivity Data|| Mildly irritating to human skin.
|Environmental Impact|| Cyclohexane occurs naturally in crude oil and may be released wherever petroleum
products are refined, stored, and used. Another large source of general release is in exhaust gases
from motor vehicles. It is also produced in large quantities primarily as an intermediate in the
manfacture of nylon and releases in wastewater, and as fugitive emissions, can be expected in
connection with its manufacture and use. If released on land, cyclohexane will be lost through
volatilization and should leach into groundwater. While cyclohexane is resistant to
biodegradation, degradation occurs slowly in groudwater in the presence of other petrochemicals.
Volatilization from water (estimated half-life 2 hr in a model river) shoud be the most important
fate process ocurring in aquatic systems. While bioconcentration in aquatic organisms and
adsorption to sediment is estimated to occur to a moderate extent, vaporization should be so rapid
that they will not contribute significantly to cyclohexane's fate in water. In the atmosphere,
cyclohexane will degrade by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life
52 hr). The half-life is must faster under photochemical smog conditions with half-lives as low as
6 hr being reported. Human exposure will be primarily via inhalation especially in areas of high
traffic and where petroleum products are used.
|Environmental Fate|| Atmospheric Fate: Cyclohexane is expected to partition to the atmosphere where it will
rapidly react with hydroxyl radicals.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on land, cyclohexane will be lost through volatilization and
should leach into the ground. Cyclohexane is resistant to biodegradation but may biodegrade
slowly in the presence of other hydrocarbons that are themselves degraded.
AQUATIC FATE: Volatilization from water (estimated half-life 2 hr in a model river) should be
the most important fate process occuring in aquatic systems .
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: In the atmosphere, cyclohexane will degrade by reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life 52 hr). The half-life is much faster under
photochemical smog conditions with half-lives as low as 6 hr being reported.
|Drinking Water Impact|| Cyclohexane was found in 13 of 204 ambient surface water samples.
DRINKING WATER: A contaminated drinking water well in NY contained 540 ppb of
cyclohexane . While a public drinking water supply in East Anglia, England that was 210 m
from a leaking petroleum storage tank contained (0.01 ppb of cyclohexane, the groundwater 10
and 110 m from the tank were 10 and <1 ppb, respectivley ). Cyclohexane was found in 5 of 14
waterworks sampled in the U.K. . The sources of the cyclohexane-tainted drinking water was
rivers, reservoirs and groundwater and the contaminat was present in raw, as well as treated
GROUNDWATER: Trace quantities of cyclohexane were found in 1 of 11 bedrock domestic
wells near the muncipal landfill in Granby, CT .
SURFACE WATER: In a survey of 14 heavily industrialized river basins in the United States
(240 sites), 1 site in the Hudson River Basin contained 1 ppb of cyclohexane and 13 sites in the
Mississippi River Basin contained 1.0-4.0 ppb of cyclohexane . Grab samples of surface water
in the Gulf of Mexico in which there was anthopogenic influence contained 0-0.26 ppb of
cyclohexane . Open water and unpolluted coastal water did not contain detectable quantities of
the chemical . Surface water at an offshore oil production operation in the Gulf of Mexico -
0.47 ppb .
EFFL: In a comprehensive survey of wastewater from 4000 industrial and publicly owned
treatment works sponsored by the Effluent Guidelines Division of the USEPA, cyclohexane as
identified in discharges of the following industrial categories (frequency of occurrence, median
concn in ppb): timber products (3; 23.0), petroleum refining (7;46.0), coal mining (3;20.0),
organics and plastics (33;14.0), inorganic chemicals (9;267.0), textile mills (3;6.0), plastics and
synthetics (2;6.0), rubber processing (5;125.0), auto and other laundries (1;3.0), pesticides
manufacture (5;48.0) photographic industry (1;47.0), pharmaceuticals(1;3.0), oil and gas
extraction (7;4.0), mechanical products (1;7.0), and publicly owned treatment works (14;6.0) .
Cyclohexane was one of the volatile organic hydrocarbons emitted from simulated municipal
landfills . These "simulated landfills" consisted of steel tanks packed with municipal waste and
various loading rates of municipal wastewater sludge. Analysis started 8 months after loading and
continued for a year. Cyclohexane sampled in formation water and in an underwater vent plume at
an offshore oil production operation in the Gulf of Mexico was 100 ppb and 1 umol/1 of gas,