|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 8260|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| SOLVENT FOR ANHYDROUS MINERAL SALTS; IN ORG SYNTHESIS & ANAL
MFR OF VITAMINS (ESP NICOTINIC ACID), SULFA DRUGS, DISINFECTANTS,
DYESTUFF, EXPLOSIVES; USED IN RUBBER INDUST
CHEM INT FOR DIQUAT & PARAQUAT, PIPERIDINE, WATER PROOFING AGENTS
USED IN TEXTILES; SOLVENT IN DRUG MFR; CHEM INT FOR ANTIHISTAMINES
(INCL CHLOROPHENIRAMINE MALEATE); REAGENT (INCL AS SCAVENGER FOR
ACIDS); INT FOR ANTI-INFECTIVES (INCL CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE)
Used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as CNS stimulants, and local anesthetics. Used
as a solvent in manufacture of polycarbonate resins used in hand tools, small appliances, camera
parts, safety helmets, and electrical connectors. Used as a solvent reaction medium or catalyst in
paint manufacture, carbohydrate treatment, used as a coupling reagent in azo dye
manufacture; used in purification of mercury fulminate in explosives manufacture, during thermal
decomposition of flexible polyurethane foams; used as an inhibitor and for preparation of
inhibitors; used in oil and gas well drilling.
IN SEAFOOD FLAVORS, SMOKE FLAVORS, CHOCOLATE.
Synthesis of vitamins and drugs, solvent water proofing, rubber chemicals, denaturant for alcohol
and antifreeze mixtures, dyeing assistant in textiles, fungicides
REPORTED USES: NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 1.0 PPM; ICE CREAM, ICES, ETC
0.02-0.12 PPM; CANDY 0.40 PPM; BAKED GOODS 0.40 PPM.
|Consumption Patterns|| APPROX 33% IS USED AS A SOLVENT IN DRUG MFR AND AS A REAGENT
(INCL AS A SCAVENGER FOR ACIDS); 17-33% AS AN INT FOR ANTIHISTAMINES
(INCL CHLOROPHENIRAMINE MALEATE) AND ANTI-INFECTIVES (INCL
CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE); 8-17% AS AN INT FOR PIPERIDINE; 8-17% AS AN
INT FOR WATERPROOFING AGENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUST; AND 8-17% IN MISC
(1975) 6.81X10 9 G (SECONDARY CONSUMPTION EST)
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQUID ; Slightly yellow
|Odor|| POWERFUL, FISH-LIKE ; Sharp, nauseating ; Burnt, sickening
|Boiling Point|| 115-116 DEG C
|Melting Point|| -42 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 79.10
|Density|| 0.9780 @ 25 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Water odor threshold: 0.95 mg/l; Air odor threshold: 0.17 ul/l; Odor safety class: B. B=
50-90% of distracted persons perceive warning of TLV.
Odor detection in water is 8.20x10 1 ppm; chemically pure
Odor recognition in air is 2.10x10-2 ppm; chemically pure
0.01 mg/cu m (odor low); 15.00 mg/cu m (odor high)
Studies in normal adults having no known nasal pathology and no significant industrial
exposure show that the threshold for detecting pyridine ranges from 20 to 0.04 ppm.
|Sensitivity Data|| Irritating to eyes, nose, and throat. May cause smarting of the skin
Pyridine and its derivatives cause local irritation on contact with the skin, mucous membranes
|Environmental Impact|| Pyridine is released to the environment in wastewater and as fugitive emissions during its
production and use as a chemical intermediate and solvent. Energy-related processes such as coal
and shale oil gasification is another important source of release. Several food items have been
found to contain pyridine which is either in the food naturally or formed during cooking. Pyridine
is contained in tobacco smoke and may contribute to its presence in indoor air. If released on land,
pyridine will leach into the ground and biodegrade within approximately 8 days. If released into
water, pyridine may be lost through biodegradation, photooxidation, and volatilization (half-life
90 hr for a model river). No biodegradation and photooxidation rates in natural waters are
available. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms should not be significant because of its high
water solubility. In the atmosphere, pyridine will react slowly with photochemically produced
hydroxy radicals (half-life 32 and 16 days in clean and moderately polluted atmospheres,
respectively) and be scavanged by rain. In polluted areas containing appreciable nitric acid vapor,
reaction with nitric acid may be the major removal process. People are primarily exposed to
pyridine in occupational settings, although the general public will be exposed from tobacco smoke
and some food items.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on land pyridine will leach into the ground and
biodegrade. It is adsorbed to acid clay to a moderate extent. Complete degradation in one
soil occurred in less than 8 days .
AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, pyridine should biodegrade after an acclimation period
and be slowly lost through volatilization (half-life 90 hr for a model river). No estimates of
biodegradation rates in natural waters are available. It may also be lost by photooxidation but no
data containing actual rates were available. Adsorption to sediment or particulate matter in the
water column should not be important because of the high water solubility.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released into the atmosphere, pyridine will react slowly with
photochemically produced hydroxy radicals (half-life 32 and 16 days in clean and moderately
polluted atmospheres, respectively) and be scavenged by rain. In situations where the atmosphere
contains appreciable nitric acid vapor, reaction with nitrate ion may be the major removal
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Pyridine was reported in drinking water in Cincinnati, OH .
SURFACE WATER: Pyridine was detected, not quantified in the Cuyahoga River in the Lake
Erie Basin . Traces were found in the River Lee in England which receives effluents from many
sewage treatment plants .
GROUNDWATER: Two aquifers under the Hoe creek coal gasification site contained 0.82-53
ppb of pyridine 15 months after gasification was completed . Not detected in wells in Hanna
and Gillete, WY prior to coal gasification .
EFFL: In a survey of industrial effluents, pyridine was identified in discharges of the following
industries (frequency of occurrence; median concn in ppb): timber products (1,1032), paint and
ink (5,2), ore mining (3,4), inorganic chemicals (3,137), pharmaceuticals (2,156), organic
chemicals (11,160), publicly owned treatment works (9,77) . Pyridine is contained in shale oil
wastewater (7 ppm) and would be released to the atmosphere if the wastewater is heated as it
would be when used to cool hot, retorted oil shale(1,5). It was also found in the effluents from an
advanced water treatment facility in Orange County, CA . Waste water from coal gasification
contained an estimated 4.62 ppm of pyridine .