SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 110861
CASRN 110-86-1
SynonymsPyridine
Analytical Methods EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaC5H5N

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use SOLVENT FOR ANHYDROUS MINERAL SALTS; IN ORG SYNTHESIS & ANAL CHEM MFR OF VITAMINS (ESP NICOTINIC ACID), SULFA DRUGS, DISINFECTANTS, DYESTUFF, EXPLOSIVES; USED IN RUBBER INDUST CHEM INT FOR DIQUAT & PARAQUAT, PIPERIDINE, WATER PROOFING AGENTS USED IN TEXTILES; SOLVENT IN DRUG MFR; CHEM INT FOR ANTIHISTAMINES (INCL CHLOROPHENIRAMINE MALEATE); REAGENT (INCL AS SCAVENGER FOR ACIDS); INT FOR ANTI-INFECTIVES (INCL CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE) Used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as CNS stimulants, and local anesthetics. Used as a solvent in manufacture of polycarbonate resins used in hand tools, small appliances, camera parts, safety helmets, and electrical connectors. Used as a solvent reaction medium or catalyst in paint manufacture, carbohydrate treatment, used as a coupling reagent in azo dye manufacture; used in purification of mercury fulminate in explosives manufacture, during thermal decomposition of flexible polyurethane foams; used as an inhibitor and for preparation of inhibitors; used in oil and gas well drilling. IN SEAFOOD FLAVORS, SMOKE FLAVORS, CHOCOLATE. Synthesis of vitamins and drugs, solvent water proofing, rubber chemicals, denaturant for alcohol and antifreeze mixtures, dyeing assistant in textiles, fungicides REPORTED USES: NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 1.0 PPM; ICE CREAM, ICES, ETC 0.02-0.12 PPM; CANDY 0.40 PPM; BAKED GOODS 0.40 PPM.
Consumption Patterns APPROX 33% IS USED AS A SOLVENT IN DRUG MFR AND AS A REAGENT (INCL AS A SCAVENGER FOR ACIDS); 17-33% AS AN INT FOR ANTIHISTAMINES (INCL CHLOROPHENIRAMINE MALEATE) AND ANTI-INFECTIVES (INCL CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE); 8-17% AS AN INT FOR PIPERIDINE; 8-17% AS AN INT FOR WATERPROOFING AGENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUST; AND 8-17% IN MISC APPLICATIONS (1970) (1975) 6.81X10 9 G (SECONDARY CONSUMPTION EST)
Apparent Color COLORLESS LIQUID ; Slightly yellow
Odor POWERFUL, FISH-LIKE ; Sharp, nauseating ; Burnt, sickening
Boiling Point 115-116 DEG C
Melting Point -42 DEG C
Molecular Weight 79.10
Density 0.9780 @ 25 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration Water odor threshold: 0.95 mg/l; Air odor threshold: 0.17 ul/l; Odor safety class: B. B= 50-90% of distracted persons perceive warning of TLV. Odor detection in water is 8.20x10 1 ppm; chemically pure Odor recognition in air is 2.10x10-2 ppm; chemically pure 0.01 mg/cu m (odor low); 15.00 mg/cu m (odor high) Studies in normal adults having no known nasal pathology and no significant industrial exposure show that the threshold for detecting pyridine ranges from 20 to 0.04 ppm.
Sensitivity Data Irritating to eyes, nose, and throat. May cause smarting of the skin Pyridine and its derivatives cause local irritation on contact with the skin, mucous membranes and cornea.
Environmental Impact Pyridine is released to the environment in wastewater and as fugitive emissions during its production and use as a chemical intermediate and solvent. Energy-related processes such as coal and shale oil gasification is another important source of release. Several food items have been found to contain pyridine which is either in the food naturally or formed during cooking. Pyridine is contained in tobacco smoke and may contribute to its presence in indoor air. If released on land, pyridine will leach into the ground and biodegrade within approximately 8 days. If released into water, pyridine may be lost through biodegradation, photooxidation, and volatilization (half-life 90 hr for a model river). No biodegradation and photooxidation rates in natural waters are available. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms should not be significant because of its high water solubility. In the atmosphere, pyridine will react slowly with photochemically produced hydroxy radicals (half-life 32 and 16 days in clean and moderately polluted atmospheres, respectively) and be scavanged by rain. In polluted areas containing appreciable nitric acid vapor, reaction with nitric acid may be the major removal process. People are primarily exposed to pyridine in occupational settings, although the general public will be exposed from tobacco smoke and some food items.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on land pyridine will leach into the ground and biodegrade. It is adsorbed to acid clay to a moderate extent. Complete degradation in one soil occurred in less than 8 days . AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, pyridine should biodegrade after an acclimation period and be slowly lost through volatilization (half-life 90 hr for a model river). No estimates of biodegradation rates in natural waters are available. It may also be lost by photooxidation but no data containing actual rates were available. Adsorption to sediment or particulate matter in the water column should not be important because of the high water solubility. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released into the atmosphere, pyridine will react slowly with photochemically produced hydroxy radicals (half-life 32 and 16 days in clean and moderately polluted atmospheres, respectively) and be scavenged by rain. In situations where the atmosphere contains appreciable nitric acid vapor, reaction with nitrate ion may be the major removal process(1,SRC).
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Pyridine was reported in drinking water in Cincinnati, OH . SURFACE WATER: Pyridine was detected, not quantified in the Cuyahoga River in the Lake Erie Basin . Traces were found in the River Lee in England which receives effluents from many sewage treatment plants . GROUNDWATER: Two aquifers under the Hoe creek coal gasification site contained 0.82-53 ppb of pyridine 15 months after gasification was completed . Not detected in wells in Hanna and Gillete, WY prior to coal gasification . EFFL: In a survey of industrial effluents, pyridine was identified in discharges of the following industries (frequency of occurrence; median concn in ppb): timber products (1,1032), paint and ink (5,2), ore mining (3,4), inorganic chemicals (3,137), pharmaceuticals (2,156), organic chemicals (11,160), publicly owned treatment works (9,77) . Pyridine is contained in shale oil wastewater (7 ppm) and would be released to the atmosphere if the wastewater is heated as it would be when used to cool hot, retorted oil shale(1,5). It was also found in the effluents from an advanced water treatment facility in Orange County, CA . Waste water from coal gasification contained an estimated 4.62 ppm of pyridine .

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