|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||bis(2-Chloroethyl) ether||Dichloroethyl ether||Ethane, 1,1'-oxybis[2-chloro-
||EPA Method 611||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8110
||EPA Method 8270
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| REAGENT FOR ORGANIC SYNTHESIS; SOLVENT
FULLING CMPD; WETTING & PENETRATING CMPD; SPOTTING & DRY CLEANING
SCAVENGE LEAD DEPOSITS IN GASOLINE; ANESTHETIC
ACARICIDE; MFR OF MEDICINALS & PHARMACEUTICALS
OIL SOLN SPRAYED ON CORN SILKS TO CONTROL EARWORMS; ALSO SOIL
FUMIGANT FORMER USE
Selective solvent for production of high-grade lubricating oils, intermediate & cross-linker in
SRP: Used in aerosols.
SRP: Used as a pesticide Former use/.
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS, CLEAR LIQ
|Odor|| PUNGENT ; NAUSEATING ODOR RESEMBLING ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE ;
SWEET, LIKE CHLOROFORM
|Boiling Point|| 178 DEG C
|Melting Point|| -24.5 DEG C
|Density|| SP GR: 1.22 @ 20 DEG C/20 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Odor detection in water= 3.60x10 2 ppm, purity not specified.
Low= 90 mg/cu m; High= 2,160 mg/cu m. From table
|Sensitivity Data|| IN HUMAN BEINGS THE VAPOR IS HIGHLY IRRITANT TO THE EYES, NOSE
AND RESPIRATORY PASSAGES.
Irritating: 600 mg/cu m From table
Strongly irritating to skin, eyes, mucous membranes.
|Environmental Impact|| Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) is most likely released to the environment from the use
of products containing the compound. Chlorination of drinking water containing ethyl ether can
result in the formation of BCEE. Release of BCEE to water is expected to result in hydrolysis
(estimated half-life 40 days) and volatilization. BCEE biodegrades in water following several
weeks of acclimation. Aqueous photolysis and photooxidation are not expected to be important
processes in the aquatic fate of BCEE. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is extremely low.
When released to soil, BCEE may hydrolyze and is expected to leach extensively to groundwater.
A half-life of 13.44 hr was estimated for the reaction of BCEE with photochemically produced
hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere. Direct atmospheric photolysis is not expected to be
important since BCEE should not absorb light of wavelengths above 290 nm. Monitoring studies
indicate that BCEE is a contaminant in air, water, sediment and soil. Human exposure probably
results primarily from drinking water contaminated with BCEE.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: In a 140 cm long column containing Lincoln fine sand collected
in Ada, OK, 86% of the applied bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) reached 140 cm, indicating low
adsorption to this soil . Using a measured water solubility of 13.08 g/l , a log soil sorption
coefficient (Koc) of 1.38 was estimated(3,SRC). A Koc of this magnitude indicates that BCEE
should be highly mobile in soil and should, therefore, leach rapidly to groundwater. No
data concerning the hydrolysis of BCEE in the soil were available. A hydrolysis half-life of 40
days at pH 7 and an unspecified temperature for BCEE was estimated from ethyl chloride data in
water since BCEE is a primary chloride similar to ethyl chloride ; thus, some hydrolysis may
also occur in soil. No biodegradation data using mixed cultures of soil microorganisms
were available. Screening biodegradability test data are not completely consistent but do suggest
that BCEE may biodegrade in soil and that incubation may be necessary.
AQUATIC FATE: A hydrolysis half-life for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) has been estimated
to be about 20 years at 25 deg C . No data concerning volatilization of BCEE from natural
water bodies were available. Volatilization half-life values for BCEE volatilization from lakes,
rivers and streams were estimated using measured values for the water solubility and vapor
pressure. The estimated half-life values were 3.5, 4.4 and 180.5 days for the streams, rivers and
lakes, respectively . No data on the aqueous photolysis of BCEE were available, but photolysis
is not expecte to be an important fate process. Biodegradation in river water appears to take place
and acclimation appears to be important .
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: An atmospheric half-life of 13.44 hr was estimated for the reaction of
bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals in the
atmosphere . Direct photolysis in the atmosphere is not expected to be a major significant
degradation process since no functional groups are present in BCEE that would lead to
absorption of sunlight.
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: The median bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) concentration in
water samples taken across the United States is < 10.0 ug/l based on 808 samples, of which 3
contained detectable BCEE residues. These data are contained in the STORET data base and only
an unspecified portion pertains to surface water . Trace concentrations of BCEE were found in
five surface water samples taken from sites along the Delaware River in March 1977 . No
BCEE was detected in 11 surface water samples taken from the river in August 1976 . The
BCEE concentration in three samples of surface water taken from New Orleans and Baton Rouge
ranged from 0.040-0.16 ug/l with a mean BCEE concentration of 0.11 ug/l . One surface water
sample taken in the Houston area contained 1.4 ug/l . Raw water samples collected in
unspecified locations in the United Kingdom contained BCEE, but no quantitative data were
presented . Identified not quanitified in bankfiltered Rhine water .
GROUNDWATER: Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) was detected but not quantified in samples
of well water collected near a solid waste landfill located 60 miles southwest of Wilmington,
DE . Leachates from wells near low level radioactive waste disposal sites contained BCEE, but
no quantitative data were presented .
DRINKING WATER: Drinking water samples taken from New Orleans, LA contained 0.04 ug/l
bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) . Samples of drinking water obtained from unspecified
locations in the US and the Netherlands contained 0.42 ug/l and 0.1 ug/l BCEE, respectively .
Drinking water samples taken in the Netherlands contained a maximum of 30 ng/l BCEE .
BCEE was detected but not quantified in drinking water samples from Evansville, IN ,
Philadelphia, PA and from an unspecified treatment plant in the United Kingdom . Identified
not quantified, in drinking water from the Torresdale Water Treatment Plant in Philadelphia, PA,
Feb 1975-Nov 1976, 7 samples, 86% pos(6).
In Kanawha river (11/13/63): raw water, 55 ppb; sand filtered, 10 ppb; in Kanawha river
(11/21/63): raw water, 154 ppb; after aeration: 104 ppb; carbon filtered: not detectable
EFFL: Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) residues in treated wastewater effluents from several
industries were as follows: Foundries - 2 samples, 100% positive, 8-9 ug/l, 8.5 ug/l avg; organic
chemicals manufacturing/plastics - 3 of an unspecified number of samples pos, 710 ug/l avg; paint
and ink formulation - unspecified number of samples or number pos, >10 ug/l maximum
concentration . Synthetic rubber plant effluent - 0.16 mg/l .