|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||Aldicarb||Temik||Propanal, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-, O-[(methylamino) carbonyl]oxime||Propionaldehyde, 2-methyl-2-(methyl-thio)-, O-(methylcarbomoyl) oxime
||EPA Method 531.1||EPA Method 8318
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| Soil application for control of chewing & sucking insects (esp aphids, whiteflies, leaf
miners, & soil-dwelling insects), spider mites, & nematodes in glasshouse & outdoor ornamentals,
sugar beet, fodder beet, strawberries, potatoes, onions, hops, vine nurseries, tree nurseries,
groudnuts, soya beans, citrus fruit, bananas, coffee, sorghum, pecans cotton, sweet potatoes &
Temik is used only as soil application to control certain insects, mites, and nematodes on citrus
(grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges only), cotton, dry beans; pecans (southeast only); sugarcane
Aldicarb is effective in reducing the foraging of skylarks in sugar-beet fields in the United
Terrestrial Non-Food Uses with Rates (l lb active ingredient): Birch, 5.0-10.0; dahlias, 5.0-8.0;
holly, 5.0-10.0; lilies (bulbs), 5.0-7.0; and roses, 7.0-10.0.
Commercial Greenhouse Uses with Rates (l lb active ingredient): Carnations, 7.5-10.0;
chrysanthemum, 7.5-10.0; easter lilies, 5.0-7.5; gernera. 5.0-10.0; orchids, 7.5-10.0; poinsettia,
7.5-10.0; roses, 5.0-10.0; snapdragons, 5.0-10.0.
|Consumption Patterns|| COTTON (82.5%), ORNAMENTALS AND FLOWERS (4.4%), POTATOES (3.8%),
BEANS (2.5%) OTHER (6.8%)/CALIFORNIA/(1984)
|Apparent Color|| CRYSTALS FROM ISOPROPYL ETHER; WHITE, CRYSTALLINE SOLID
|Odor|| Slightly sulfurous odor
|Melting Point|| 99-100 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 190.25
|Density|| 1.1950 AT 25 DEG C/20 DEG C
|Environmental Impact|| Release of aldicarb to the environment will occur due to its manufacture and use as a
systemic insecticide, acaricide and nematocide for soil use. If aldicarb is released to the soil it
should not bind to the soil. It will be susceptible to chemical and possibly biological oxidation to
form the sulfoxide and sulfone. Hydrolysis is both acid and base catalyzed with examples of
hydrolysis half-lives in soil at 15 deg C of 9.9 days at pH 6.34 and 7.0, 23 days at pH 7.2, and
3240 days at pH 5.4. Half-lives in soil have been reported to be 7 days in loam soil under field
conditions, a few days in green house soil; a general range of persistence in soil of 1-15 days has
been reported. Aldicarb degraded faster in soil which had been previously treated with carbofuran.
Aldicarb does not degrade in groundwater under aerobic conditions unless relatively high pH (pH
8.5) exists; reported half-lives in groundwater under anaerobic conditions at pH 7.7-8.3 were
62-1300 days. Aldicarb has been shown to be formed from aldicarb sulfoxide in groundwater
under aerobic conditions and under anaerobic conditions in groundwater to which glucose had
been added. Aldicarb may volatilize from soil with the rate of its evaporation increasing with the
rate of evaporation for water. Aldicarb may leach to the groundwater in some soils where the
rates of hydrolysis and oxidation are relatively slow, as in the slow hydrolysis of aldicarb reported
at pH's around 5.4. If aldicarb is released to water it should not adsorb to sediments or
bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. It will be subject to hydrolysis which is both acid and base
catalyzed with examples of half-lives of 131 days at pH 3.95 and 6 days at pH 8.85 at 20 deg C,
and 3240 days at pH 5.5 and 15 deg C. No information on biodegradation in natural waters was
found. It is susceptible to photolysis when irradiated at 254 nm, but may not be photolyzed by
light >290 nm. Volatilization from water should not be an important fate process. Half-life is 5
days in lake and pond water. If aldicarb is released to the atmosphere it will be subject to reaction
with hydroxyl radicals with an estimated vapor phase half-life of 3.49 days. No information on
photolysis at environmentally significant wavelengths was found. Exposure to aldicarb and
aldicarb sulfoxide and sulfone will occur mainly through the ingestion of contaminated food and
contaminated drinking water derived from contaminated groundwater.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Aldicarb was mixed into the top layer of columns of
undisturbed soil 0.6-1 m long, which were then replaced in the soil and exposed to field
conditions. During the growing season (15 May-26 Oct, 30 cm total rainfall), the oxidation
products of aldicarb were retained in the upper 20 cm of grassed soil. Similar results occurred
with fallow loam soils. However with fallow humic sand soil, 2-15% of the dose was leached from
columns 0.6 m long. After 5.5 mo, aldicarb sulfoxide plus sulfone residues in grassed soil ranged
4.2-7% and 11-17% of the dose for 2 loam soils and a humic sand soil, respectively. Residues in
fallow loam soil averaged 0.45-0.76 times those in the grassed ones. In the winter period the
precipitation excess leached 0.48-2.2% of the dose from the 1 m long loam columns, while
2.4-3.4% was retained, mainly at the lower end of the columns. The residues were almost
completely leached from columns of humic sand soil 0.8 m long.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: If aldicarb is released to the soil it should not bind to the soil. It will be
susceptible to chemical and possibly biological oxidation to form the sulfoxide and sulfone.
Hydrolysis is both acid and base catalyzed with examples of hydrolysis half-lives in soil at 15 deg
C of 9.9 days at pH 6.34 and 7.0, and 23 days at pH 7.2 , and 3240 days at pH 5.4 .
Half-lives in soil have been reported to be 7 days in loam soil under field conditions , a few days
in greenhouse soil ; a general range of persistence in soil of 1-15 days has been reported .
Aldicarb degraded faster in soil which had been previously treated with carbofuran. Aldicarb does
not degrade in groundwater under aerobic conditions unless relatively high pH (pH 8.5) exists;
reported half-lives in groundwater under anaerobic conditions at pH 7.7-8.3 were 62-1300
days(6). Aldicarb has been shown to be formed from aldicarb sulfoxide in groundwater under
aerobic conditions and under anaerobic conditions in groundwater to which glucose had been
added(7). Aldicarb may volatilize from soil with the rate of its evaporation increasing with the rate
of evaporation for water. Aldicarb may leach to the groundwater in some soils where the rate of
hydrolysis and oxidation are relatively slow, as in the slow hydrolysis of aldicarb reported at pH's
TERRESTRIAL FATE: The conversion & leaching of aldicarb using soil columns in the lab wer
studied. Measurements of aldicarb & its sulfoxide & sulfone showed that all were very mobile in
soil. Aldicarb conversion followed 1st-order kinetics with a half-life of about 2 days. The half-life
in 2 soils for the sulfoxide was 12 & 23 days. In other studies, the est half-life of aldicarb in
Houston black clay was 54 days at 23 deg C & 14-20 days at 42 deg C. In Beaumont clay, the
half-life was 15-28 days at 23 deg C. At 42 deg C, 34% of the aldicarb decomp in 2-4 days &
over 70% decomp in 16-18 days. Other lab studies with sandy loam & 5 sand soils indicated
extensive fragmentation of aldicarb with up to 82% of applied labeled material recovered as
(14)C-carbon dioxide. The sulfoxide & sulfone were the major solvent extractable metabolites.
Some of unextractable label appeared in the humic & fulvic acid soil fractions. At 15 deg C, the
rate constants for aldicarb conversion in 7 soils varied between 0.078/day in a peaty sand to
0.35/day in a clay loam.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: In soil, degradation of aldicarb was greater than 10% at 23 deg C in
Beaumont soil. About 24% of the added aldicarb was lost from moist soil; 46% from dry soil. IR
studies of aldicarb-AL-montmorillonite complexes indicated that degradation was initiated, near
strong acid clay surfaces, by protonation of the carbonyl oxygen & possibly the oxime nitrogen.
Under field conditions, aldicarb half-life was about 7 days in loam soil. Formation of carbon
dioxide from aldicarb was fairly rapid, indicating extensive degradation.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Aldicarb sulfoxide loss from soil followed first-order kinetics. The
half-life at 15 deg C was 20 days in a clay loam & 46 days in a peaty sand. At 15 deg C, 52-76%
of the sulfoxide was converted to sulfone during the study. The loss of aldicarb sulfone from soil
was variable. While first-order kinetics described the initial loss as 2-3 time half-life, after 56 days
on clay loam soil or 112 on a greenhouse soil, the degradation rate was faster. At 15 deg C, in
plough layer soils, sulfone half-life ranged from 18-154 days in a clay loam & peaty sand,
respectively. In deeper layers, the rate was slower. Aldicarb sulfoxide; aldicarb sulfone
TERRESTRIAL FATE: SAMPLES WERE TAKEN IN 1980 AND 1981 FROM TEMIK
TREATED CITRUS GROVES ON SIX FARMS LOCATED IN FLORIDA. NO
SIGNIFICANT CONCENTRATIONS OF ALDICARB WERE FOUND IN POTABLE WELLS
OR IN SURFACE WATER AROUND THE SIX SAMPLING SITES. COMPUTER
MODELING INDICATES THAT ONLY A SMALL FRACTION (< 1%) OF THE ALDICARB
APPLIED TO A FLORIDA CITRUS GROVE DURING THE SPRING FLUSH (THE
REQUIRED APPLICATION PERIOD) WOULD NORMALLY REACH SHALLOW
GROUNDWATER. THE MONITORING DATA AND MODEL CALCULATIONS
DEMONSTRATE THAT THE USE OF TEMIK IN FLORIDA CITRUS GROVES WILL NOT
RESULT IN PERSISTENT ALDICARB RESIDUES IN FLORIDA GROUNDWATER.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Under field conditions, a half-life of about 7 days was found in loam
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Aldicarb has a half-life of about two months in medium soil. It degrades
faster at higher temperatures, and in more alkaline soils.
AQUATIC FATE: If aldicarb is released to water it should not adsorb to sediments or
bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. It will be subject to hydroysis which is both acid and base
catalyzed with examples of half-lives of 131 days at pH 3.95 and 6 days at pH 8.85 at 20 deg C
with a maximum of 3240 days at pH 5.5 and 15 deg C . No information on biodegradation in
natural waters was found. It is susceptible to photolysis when irradiated at 254 nm, but may not
be photolyzed by light >290 nm. Volatilization from water should not be an important fate
process. Half-life of 5 days reported in lake and pond water .
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If aldicarb is released to the atmosphere it will be subject to reaction
with hydroxyl radicals with an estimated vapor phase half-life of 3.49 days. However, based upon
a reported vapor pressure of 3.5X10-5 mm Hg , aldicarb will be partially absorbed into
particulate matter where it will not be subject to vapor phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals.
No information on photolysis at environmentally significant wavelengths was found.
AQUATIC FATE: Aldicarb toxins are highly mobile in water and are taken up by roots and
carried throughout the plant.
|Drinking Water Impact|| GROUND WATER: Aldicarb concn in groundwater beneath 3 main study fields and 2
subsidiary fields were monitored during the period Dec 1980-Aug 1981. Several trends were
evident: 1) highest concn of aldicarb were detected in shallow monitoring wells (those
immediately below the water table); 2) no aldicarb was detected in any of the deep monitoring
wells (those located roughly 60 ft below the water table), although aldicarb was found in some of
the irrigation wells finished at approx the same depth; 3) aldicarb seems to be concentrated in
roughly a 5-ft layer near the water table, and 4) marked seasonal fluctuations in aldicarb concn
occurred in several wells.
Five days after aldicarb application, the leachates from the 33.6, 16.7, and 8.4 kg aldicarb/ha
treatments contained 3.82, 2.95, and 1.39 ppm, respectively, of aldicarb and its metabolites.
After 20 or 75 days, the concn of aldicarb dropped to 0.47, 0.21, and 0.15 ppm or 0.11, 0.11, and
0.03 ppm, respectively. After 2 hr of starting irrigation in furrows, the surface water contained
0.66 and 1.91 ppm in the 11.2 and 22.4 kg aldicarb/ha treatment, respectively. Aldicarb
accumulated in the drainage water and moved downward into the soil with irrigation water.
GROUND WATER: The highly toxic pesticide aldicarb, initially considered incapable of
contaminating ground water, was used on about 9,700 ha of potato fields in eastern Suffolk
County in Long Island, NY, during 1975-79. In 1979, aldicarb was found in substantial
concentrations in ground water samples. Subsequent extensive analyses of the area's ground water
showed widespread contamination, with concentrations ranging from traces to as much as 515
GROUNDWATER: Central sand plain, Wisconsin, Dec 1980-Aug 1981, 5 fields, very shallow
wells (finished 10 ft below land surface and <2 ft below the water table), 3 fields, 30 samples,
60% pos, avg 58.4 ppb; shallow wells (finished 15 ft below surface and <10 ft below water table),
3 fields, 78 samples, 51% pos, avg 25.5 ppb; middle depth wells (finished 35 ft below surface and
25 ft below water table), 3 fields, 61 samples, 32.8% pos, avg 5.58 ppb; deep wells (finished
adjacent to bedrock or 80 ft below surface and 60 ft below water table), 5 fields, 18 samples,
33.3% pos, avg 8.0 ppb; by field: field A, 62 samples, 48.3% pos, not detected(nd)-103 ppb; field
B, 46 samples, 56.5% pos, nd-191 ppb; field C, 61 samples, 25% pos, nd-195 ppb; field D, 5
samples, 100% pos, 1-210 ppb; field E, 13 samples, 54% pos, nd-105 ppb . Aldicarb sulfoxide
and sulfone, identified in these states: AZ, CA, FL, ME, MO, NC, NJ, NY, OR, TX, VA, WA,
WI, typical pos, 1-50 ppb . Wisconsin, 9 potato fields, 100% pos for total aldicarb residues, not
all locations pos within each field .
SURFACE WATER: Total aldicarb residues: Florida, 1980-81, 17 sites, 92 samples, 15.2% pos,
1-4 ppb, avg of pos, 1.4 ppb .
GROUND WATER: ALDICARB WAS DETECTED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN
GROUNDWATER IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, NY, IN AUGUST 1979. OF THE 8404 WELLS
EXAMINED, 13.5% EXCEEDED THE STATE RECOMMENDED GUIDELINE FOR
ALDICARB CONCENTRATION OF 7 PPB. OF THESE CONTAMINATED WELLS, 52%
CONTAINED ALDICARB BETWEEN 8 AND 30 PPB, 32% BETWEEN 31 AND 75 PPB
AND 16% GREATER THAN 75 PPB.
Drinking water: In 1979, aldicarb residues were found in drinking water wells located near
aldicarb-treated potato fields in Suffolk County. Long Island, New York, at levels (200 parts per
billion (ppb). Aldicarb residues have since been found in drinking water wells at levels above 10
ppb in other states, including Wisconsin, Florida, Maine, Virginia, Connecticut, Delaware,
Maryland, New Jersey, and Rhode Island.
DRINKING WATER: ALDICARB RESIDUES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN WATER FROM
WELLS NEAR TREATED FIELDS AT CONCENTRATIONS RANGING FROM 10 TO 220
PPB, LEVELS WHICH EXCEED THE HEALTH ADVISORY LEVEL (HAL) OF 10 PPB
ESTABLISHED BY THE OFFICE OF DRINKING WATER (ODW) OF EPA, IN THE
FOLLOWING STATES: CALIFORNIA, MAINE, MASSACHUSETTS, MISSOURI, NEW
JERSEY, NEW YORK, WISCONSIN, VIRGINIA. LEVELS UP TO 500 PPB HAVE BEEN
FOUND IN NEW YORK. CONCENTRATIONS BETWEEN 1 TO 10 PPB HAVE BEEN
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING STATES: ARIZONA, CONNECTICUT, FLORIDA,
WASHINGTON, SOUTH CAROLINA, TEXAS, NORTH CAROLINA, AND POSSIBLY
Drinking water: More than 700 community drinking water supplies were sampled for the
pesticide Temik (aldicarb and its oxidative metabolites aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone) in
Florida. All community supply wells were located in counties where Temik was reported to have
been used and approximately half of the wells were located in counties where ground water was
determined to be highly susceptible to contamination by Temik. Temik was not detected in any of
the community supply wells sampled during the study; however, it was detected in shallow private