|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 8081|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| SEED DISINFECTANT; FUNGICIDE FOR FOLIAGE AND TEXTILES;
INSECTICIDE; ORGANIC CATALYST.
EFFECTIVE SUBSTITUTE FOR BOTH SULFUR & COPPER IN CONTROL OF VARIOUS
FUNGUS DISEASES OF FRUIT TREES & ON VEGETABLES.
Used to control blue-green algae in ponds, lakes, and swimming pools.
/FORMER USE: CHEM INT-EG, FOR DIATHIANON.
/Treatment for fruit, vegetable, field crops, ornamentals, resident/commercial outdoor areas. For
brown rot of stone fruit; scab on apples, pears; blossom blights.
|Consumption Patterns|| (1975): 9.1X10 7 g.
(1978): 9.1X10 7 g, est to have been exclusively for seed treatment of vegetables, mainly
tomatoes, peas, and beans.
APPLES, 67%; OTHER DECIDUOUS FRUIT & SEED TREATMENT, 33% (1982
|Apparent Color|| GOLDEN YELLOW NEEDLES OR LEAFLETS FROM ALCOHOL.
|Boiling Point|| 275 DEG C AT 2 MM HG
|Melting Point|| 195 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 227.05
|Sensitivity Data|| ONE SERIOUS DRAWBACK TO ITS USE IS THE FACT THAT THE CHEMICAL
MAY CAUSE SKIN IRRITATION.
IRRITATING TO MUCOUS MEMBRANES.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO DUST OF
2,3-DICHLORO-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE IN CONCN OF 0.7-6 MG/CU M CAUSED EYE
|Environmental Impact|| Dichlone may be released to the air or in wastewater during its formulation and use as a
fungicide on fruits, vegetables, field crops and seed as well as for treating textiles and as a
catalyst. It is no longer produced in the US. If emitted to the air it will generally be in the form of
aerosol and dust and be subject to gravitational settling as well as photooxidation by ozone and
hydroxyl radical (estimated half-life in the vapor 1.25 hr). If released into water it will hydrolyze
with a half-life of 5 days at neutral pH and faster at alkaline pHs. Photodegradation will also occur
in surface waters but the rate of degradation could not be found. Degradation will be fast in moist
soil (half-life 1 day) but somewhat slower in dry soil (half-life of months). In field application, it
will degrade during the growing season and not leach below about 6 inches. Human exposure will
primarily be occupational to agricultural and industrial workers who use this chemical.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: In a field test, the results of which were somewhat erratic due to
lack of analytical sensitivity, dichlone applied to an apple orchard soil declined in concentration
during the growing season and was not detected in the soil the following year. During the
growing season, some dichlone was detected 4-6 inches below the surface . Dichlone degrades
in moist and air-dried soil with half-lives of 1 day and somewhat under 3 months, respectively .
AQUATIC FATE: When released into water, dichlone will hydrolyze with a half-life of 5 days at
neutral pH. Hydrolysis will be faster at alkaline pH. It will also slowly photodegrade, however no
rate for this process could be found.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Dichlone emitted to the air will be largely as dust or aerosols and be
subject to gravitational settling. It will also be subject to photodegradation in the vapor phase with
an estimated half-life of 1.25 hr.