SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 118741
CASRN 118-74-1
SynonymsHexachlorobenzene
HCB
Benzene, hexachloro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 505
EPA Method 508
EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 612
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8081
EPA Method 8120
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC6Cl6

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR SYNTHETIC RUBBER; PLASTICIZER FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE; AS A RUBBER PEPTIZING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF NITROSO AND STYRENE-TYPE RUBBERS ADDITIVE FOR PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITIONS FOR THE MILITARY, POROSITY CONTROLLER IN MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRODES; INTERMEDIATE IN DYE MANUFACTURE. A SELECTIVE FUNGICIDE SUGGESTED FOR SEED TREATMENT OF WHEAT AGAINST BUNT (TILLETIA TRITICI) FOUND EFFECTIVE FOR CONTROL OF DWARF BUNT. ATTRIBUTE CONTROL TO INHIBITORY ACTION OF VAPOR ON SPORE GERMINATION. FUNGICIDE FOR CONTROL OF SMUT ON GRAIN, ESP WHEAT CHEM INTERMEDIATE. EG, FOR DYES & HEXAFLUOROBENZENE Manufacture of pentachlorophenol, wood preservative; used in the production of aromatic fluorocarbons; used to impregnate paper Fungicide on sunflowers (seed treatment), seedborne diseases, insects; safflower (seed treatment), seed and seedling diseases, and wireworms. In Europe, hexachlorobenzene has been used as the precursor for pentachlorophenol, though not in the USA. European pentachlorophenol made using alkaline hydrolysis of hexachlorobenzene has more polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran impurities than the USA pentachlorophenol product.
Apparent Color NEEDLES FROM BENZENE-ALCOHOL; White needles
Boiling Point 323-326 DEG C
Melting Point 231 DEG C
Molecular Weight 284.80
Density 1.5691 at 23.6 deg C
Environmental Impact Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is formed as a waste product in the production of several chlorinated hydrocarbons and is a contaminant in some pesticides. It may enter the environment in air emissions and waste water in connection with the above and in flue gases and fly ash from waste incineration. Non-point source dispersal of hexachlorobenzene results from its presence as a contaminant in pesticides. HCB is a very persistent environmental chemical due to its chemical stability and resistance to biodegradation. If released to the atmosphere, HCB will exist primarily in the vapor phase and degradation will be extremely slow (estimated half-life with hydroxyl radicals is 2 years). Long range global transport is possible. Physical removal from the atmosphere can occur via washout by rainfall and dry deposition. If released to water, HCB will significantly partition from the water colum to sediment and suspended matter. Volatilization from the water column is rapid; however, the strong adsorption to sediment can result in long periods of persistence. If released to soil, HCB will be strongly adsorbed and not generally susceptible to leaching. Hexachlorobenzene will bioconcentrate in fish and enter into the food chain (has been detected in food during market basket surveys). Human exposure will be from ambient air, contaminated drinking water and food, as well as contact with contaminated soil or occupational atmospheres.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: HCB released to soil is likely to remain there for extended periods of time due to its strong adsorption to soil (a half-life of 1530 days has been reported). Little biodegradation will occur and transport to groundwater is expected to be slow, depending upon the organic carbon content of the soil; some evaporation from surface soil to air may occur, the extent of which is dependent upon the organic content of the soil(1,SRC). AQUATIC FATE: HCB released to water will evaporate rapidly (half-life of ca 8 hrs has been measured in the laboratory, adsorb to sediments and bioconcentrate in fish and other aquatic organisms. Hydrolysis and biodegradation will not be significant processes in water . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: HCB released to the atmosphere can exist in both the vapor phase and adsorbed-phase; however, monitoring studies have demonstrated that the vapor phase should strongly dominate . Degradation of HCB in the atmosphere appears to be extremely slow (estimated half-life with hydroxyl radicals is 2 years). Long range global transport is possbile and has been observed . Physical removal of HCB from the atmosphere to aquatic and soil environments is possible via washout by rainfall and by dry deposition.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: 3 cities - Canada 0.06-0.2 parts per trillion, mean 0.1 parts per trillion . SURFACE WATER: Niagara Falls dumpsite-water and sediment draining into Niagara River 8-30 ppm ; Great Lakes 0.02-0.1 parts per trillion ; Lake Erie 4 of 5 sites pos, 0-0.04 parts per trillion ; USA industrialized river avg . SEAWATER: Mediterranean Sea coastal water Italy 16% pos 0.002 to 0.01 ppb . RAINWATER: Great Lakes 1-4 parts per trillion , North Pacific - 0.03 parts per trillion , Lakes Superior 2.8 parts per trillion . Southern North Sea: 0.002-0.02 ng/l in solution and 0.01-6.0 ng/g in suspended particles . Mediterranean Sea near Egypt (1982-3): 0.1-12.6 ng/l . EFFL: Wastewater effluent - nonferrous metals manufacturing 26 samples, 2 pos 220 ppb max . Wastewater from four Canadian plants - 1-2 ppt, 1.5 ppt mean . Geismar, LA - pond and ditch water on an industrial site - 170-75,000 ppb . Hexachlorobenzene has been detected in fly ash and effluenet gases released from municipal refuse incinerators and other combustion facilities-levels in flue gas ranged from 9.5 ng/cu m to 11 ug/cu m(1,2,3,4).

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