SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 118967
CASRN 118-96-7
Synonyms2,4.6-Trinitrotoluene
1-Methyl-2,4,6- Trinitrobenzene
Molecular FormulaC7H5N3O6

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

UseMILITARY EXPLOSIVE USED IN BOMBS & GRENADES INTERMEDIATE IN DYESTUFFS & PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS NEARLY 100% AS AN EXPLOSIVE FOR MILITARY USE; SMALL AMOUNTS MAY BE USED FOR INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE APPLICATIONS, SUCH AS DEEP WELL & UNDERWATER BLASTING (1976)
Apparent ColorMonoclinic Rhombohedra from alc; Commercial crystals are yellow
OdorN/A
Boiling Point 240 DEG C (EXPLODES)
Melting Point 80.1 DEG C
Molecular Weight 227.13
Misc DEN: 1.654 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C OWPC: log Kow= 1.60 SOL: SOL LESS THAN 2,4,6-TRINITROPHENOL IN ALC, ETHER, CARBON DISULFIDE ; ABOUT 0.01% IN WATER @ 25 DEG C ; 1 G/700 ML BOILING WATER ; 0.1 G/0.4 CC CHLOROFORM @ 18 DEG C ; 0.1 G/4 CC ETHER @ 18 DEG C ; 0.1 G/7 CC CARBON TETRACHLORIDE @ 18 DEG C ; 55.0 g/100 g in toluene at 20 deg C ; 72.1 g/100 g in methyl acetate at 20 deg C ; 109 g/100 g in acetone at 20 deg C ; 33.9 g/100 g in chlorobenzene at 20 deg C ; 67.0 g/100 g in benzene at 20 deg C ; 18.7 g/100 g in 1,2- dichloroethane at 20 deg C ; 137 g/100 g in pyridine at 20 deg C SPEC: MAX ABSORPTION: 225 NM (LOG E= 4.36) ; IR: 21886 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Prism Collection) ; UV: 6-101 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York) ; NMR: 486 (Varian Associates NMR Spectra Cata logue) ; Mass: 186 (Aldermaston, Eight Peak Index of Mass Spectra, UK) CAN BE DISTILLED UNDER REDUCED PRESSURE; DIPOLE MOMENT 1.37 Heat of decomposition: 5.1 kJ/g Hyproscopicty: 0.03% at 30% deg C and 90% humidity. MUST BE DETONATED BY HIGH VELOCITY INITIATOR SUCH AS NITRAMINE OR BY EFFICIENT CONCUSSION. SAFE: DOT: Health Hazards: Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Trinitrotoluene, wet/ Emergency Action: Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and structural firefighter's protective clothing will provide limited protection. CALL CHEMT REC AT 1-800-424-9300 FOR EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE. If water pollution occurs, notify the appropriate authorities. /Trinitrotoluene, wet/ Fire: Tire Fires: Flood with water; if no water is available, use dry chemical or dirt. CAUTION: Tire fires may start again. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. For massive fire in cargo area, use unmanned hose holder or monit or nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Trinitrotoluene, wet/ Spill or Leak: Shut off ignition sources; no flares, smoking or flames in hazard area. Do not touch spilled material. Small Spills: Flush area with flooding amounts of water. Large Spills: Wet down with water and dike for later disposal. /Trinitrotoluene , wet/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air; call emergency medical care. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes at the site. In case of contact with material, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. /Trinitrotoluen e, wet/ NFPA: Health: 2. 2= Materials hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely with self-contained breathing apparatus. Flammability: 4. 4= Very flammable gases, very volatile flammable liquids, and materials that in the form of dusts or mists readily form explosive mixt when dispersed in air. Shut off flow of gas or liq and keep cooling water streams on exposed tanks or containers. Use water spray carefully in the vicinity of dusts so as not to create dust clouds. Reactivity: 4. 4= Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomp or explosive reaction at normal temp and pressures. Includes materials which are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock. If a chem with t his hazard rating is in an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated. FIRE: If material /is/ on fire or involved in fire: dangerously explosive. Do not fight fires in a cargo of explosives. Evacuate area and let burn. Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. /Trinitrotoluene, or TNT, dry or containing, by we ight less than 30% water, explosive class 1.1 (High explosive, liquid)/. If material /is/ on fire or involved in fire: dangerously explosive. Do not fight fires in a cargo of explosives. Evacuate area and let burn. Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. /Trinitrotoluene, dry containing at least 10% water, ove r 16 ounces in one outside package, Class A explosive./ If material /is/ on fire or involved in fire: dangerously explosive. Flood with water. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water, apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Trinitrotoluene, wet (containing at least 10% water), flammable solid/ PERSONAL PROTECTION: FOR RESCUE OPERATIONS, USE COMPLETE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. FIGHT FIRES FROM EXPLOSION RESISTANT LOCATION. IN ADVANCED OR MASSIVE FIRES, AREA SHOULD BE EVACUATED. IF FIRE OCCURS IN VICINITY OF THIS MATERIAL WATER SHOULD BE USED TO KEEP CONTAINERS COOL. ... WHEN HEATED TO DECOMP, EMITS HIGHLY TOXIC FUMES OF NO(X) ... EXPLOSION: CLASSIFIED AS HIGH EXPLOSIVE. ... SUDDEN RAPID HEATING WILL RESULT IN DETONATION. LARGE QUANTITIES WILL DETONATE WHEN BURNED. STRONG SHOCK OR ELEVATED TEMP (ABOUT 464 DEG F) WILL DETONATE TNT. REACTIVITY: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene and potassium hydroxide in methanol will interact even at -65 deg C to give explosive acid-nitro salts. ... The explosion temperature is lowered to 160 deg C by the presence of a little potassium hydroxide. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene ... in contact with nitric acid and lead or iron produces explosive substances which may readily be ignited by shock, friction or contact with nitric or sulfuric acids. Reacts vigorously with reducing agents 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE ... MAY CAUSE ... SKIN IRRITATION. EQUP: WORKERS SHOULD BE SUPPLIED WITH PROTECTIVE CLOTHING THAT IS LAUNDERED AT REGULAR INTERVALS. Respirator selection: Upper limit devices recommended by ACGIH: For concn up 5.0 mg/cu m: any supplied air respirator or any self-containedcu m use any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. For 25 mg/cu m: any supplied-air respirato r with a full facepiece or any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. For 1000 mg/cu m: any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Emergency or planned entry in unknown concn or IDLH conditions: any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode or any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or oth er positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. For escape: any air-purifying full facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style or front- or b ack-mounted organic vapor canister or any appropriate escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. Contact lens use in industry is controversial. A survey of 100 corporations resulted in the recommendation that each company establish their own contact lens use policy. One presumed hazard of contact lens use is possible chemical entrapment. /It was/ fo und that contact lens minimized injury or protected the eye. The eye was afforded more protection from liquid irritants. Soft contact lenses do not worsen corneal damage from strong chemicals and in some cases could actually protect the eye. Overall, the literature supports the wearing of contact lenses in industrial environments as part of the standard eye protection, eg, face shields; however, more data are needed to establish the value of contact lenses. [R4] ... ADEQUATE VENTILATION SHOULD BE PROVIDED. ... ADEQUATE WASHING FACILITIES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE ... When volunteers either handled or had standard soln of 2,4,6-tritrotoluene (100 mg/ml) applied to their palms, 90% of the residues were removed by the 1st washing, but subsequent washings were less efficient. TNT was still detected after 24 hr and approx imately 12 washings. [R5] If material not on fire and not involved in fire: keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material wet. Wet spilled material before picking it up. Do not attempt to sweep up dry material. /Trinitrotoluene or TNT, dry or containing b y weight less than 30% water, explosive class 1.1 (high explosive, liquid)/ If material not on fire and not involved in fire: keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material wet. Wet spilled material before picking it up. Do not attempt to sweep up dry material. /Trinitrotoluene, dry containing at least 10 % water, over 16 ounces in one outside package/ If material not on fire and not involved in fire: keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Keep spilled material wet. Do not attempt to sweep up dry material. /Trinitrotoluene, wet (containin g at least 10% water), flammable solid/ If the material is on fire or involved in fire consider evacuation of one (1) mile radius. /Trinitrotoluene, or tnt, dry or containing, by weight less than 30% water, explosive class 1.1 (High explosive, liquid)/ Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If the material is on fire or involved in fire consider evac uation of one (1) mile radius. /Trinitrotoluene, dry containing at least 10% water, over 16 ounces in one outside package/ Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If the material is on fire or involved in fire consider evac uation of one (1) mile radius. /Trinitrotoluene, wet containing at least 10% water, flammable solid/ Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedur es should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning. SHIPPING: Whenever hazardous materials are to be transported, Title 49 CFR, Transportation, Parts 100-180, published by the US Dept of Transportation, contain the regulatory requirements and must be consulted. [R6] Int'l Air Shipments: Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, dry or wetted, with less than 30% water, by weight, IMO 1.1D, UN 0209. Packaging Instructions: Forbidden (passenger): Forbidden (cargo). /Trinitrotoluene, dry or wetted, with less than 30% water , by weight/ Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, wetted with, by weight, at least 10% water, IMO 4.1, UN 1356. Label(s) required: Flammable solid. /Trinitrotoluene, wetted with, by weight, at least 10% water/ [R7] Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, dry or wetted with less than 30% water, by weight, IMO 1.1D, UN 0209. Label(s) required: Explosive (1.1D). /Trinitrotoluene, dry or wetted with less than 30% water, by weight/ [R7] Water shipments: Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, dry or wetted, with less than 30% water, by weight, IMO 1.1D, UN 0209. Label(s) required: Explosive (1.1D). /Trinitrotoluene, dry or wetted less than 30% water, by weight/ [R8] Int'l Air Shipments: Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, wetted with, by weight, at least 10% water, IMO 4.1, UN 1356. Label(s) required: Flammable solid. Packaging Instructions: 5.4.416 (passenger): 5.4.416 (cargo). /Trinitrotoluene, wetted with, by weight, at least 10% water/ Int'l Air Shipments: Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, wetted 30% or more water, by weight, IMO 4.1, UN 1356. Label(s) required: Flammable solid. Packaging Instructions: 5.4.416 (passenger): 5.4.416 (cargo). /Trinitrotoluene, wetted, 30% or more wat er, by wieght/ Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, wetted 30% or more water, by weight, IMO 4.1, UN 1356. Label(s) required: Flammable solid. /Trinitrotoluene, wetted 30% or more water, by weight/ [R7] Water shipments: Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, wetted with, by weight, at least 10% water, IMO 4.1, UN 1356. Label(s) required: Flammable solid. /Trinitrotoluene, wetted with, by weight, at least 10% water/ [R8] Water shipments: Shipping description: Trinitrotoluene, wetted, 30% or more water, by weight, IMO 4.1, UN 1356. Label(s) required: Flammable solid. /Trinitrotoluene, wetted 30% or more water, by weight/ [R8] STRORAGE: STORE ONLY IN PERMANENT MAGAZINE. THIS HIGH EXPLOSIVE SHOULD BE KEPT WELL AWAY FROM INITIATOR EXPLOSIVES; PROTECTED FROM PHYSICAL DAMAGE; SEPARATED FROM OXIDIZING MATERIALS, COMBUSTIBLES & SOURCES OF HEAT. CLEANUP: Physical treatments, such as sorption by activated carbon or ion exchange resins or coagulation and filtration, are effective in removing TNT and other related cmpd present in munitions mfg wastewater. TNT was removed from wastewater using treatment by amines. [R9] The feasibility was demonstrated of treating explosive-contaminated wastewater using an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) in conjunction with short wavelength UV light. The process achieves a high degree of decontamination without any troublesome by-products. Water contaminated with TNT ... was successfully treated using this photooxidative method. [R10] DISPOSAL: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. ... Bench-scale composting of up to 10% TNT showed that almost complete removal of TNT occurred in 55 days. Many of the toxic transformation products formed in activated sludge and soil were not found in the composted TNT. ... Composted wastes of TNT and other munitions must be examined for the leachability of undecomposed chem and transformation products prior to land treatment. Pink water (mainly consists of alpha-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (alpha-TNT) and various concentrations of nitrobodies such as RDX) was successfully oxidized electrochemically from a range of 60-105 ppm TNT to below acceptable disposal concn (0.5 ppm). The oxi dation process does not produce any toxic by-products, and at an electrical cost of approximately $2.00 per 1000 gal, is most competitive in comparison to present alternatives. [R11] The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene Biological treatment, Activated Carbon, and Resin adsorption. [R12] Methylene blue, alone or in combination with oxygen, is indicated as treatment in nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia. /Nitrites/ [R13] Workers should receive medical exam (in daylight to ensure detection of any skin discoloration) at monthly intervals, and routine urine tests (Webster's test) are necessary to detect evidence of absorption at an early date. TNT may cause irritation of the eyes and skin among munitions workers exposed to its dust or vapor. Toxic effects upon the optic nerve have been reported rarely. Cataracts have been diagnosed in a considerable proportion of chronically exposed work ers. The severe hepatic disease caused by TNT (trinitrotoluene) was recorded among workers; in mun. ... Susceptibility seemed greater among workers with direct manual contact with the agent, especially those with grease on the skin. Women seem far more suscep tible than men. ... Clinical features were those of acute or subactue hepatic necrosis. Onset of illness was usually delayed for 1 to 4 months (at times even longer) from initial exposure. ... In some instances illness did not appear until days or weeks after cessation of exposure to TNT. Early symptoms /of TNT poisoning/ consisted of fatigue, weakness, anorexia, and nausea. Some patients had had overt methemoglobinemia, as manifested by cyanosis, but many patients developed jaundice without having shown cyanosis. Jaundice usually followe d the digestive complaints by several weeks. Prognosis was grim. Death occurred in about 25% of the approx 500 cases that occurred in Great Britain during World War I. Approx half the fatal cases developed acute hepatic failure and died in hepatic coma w ithin 5 to 30 days of the appearance of the jaundice. The histologic /sign of TNT poisoning/ ... ranged from massive hepatic necrosis in patients who had survived only a few days to varying degrees of fibrosis and architectural distortion accompanying necrosis in patients who had survived for weeks or month s. ... There were also extrahepatic manifestations of TNT toxicity. ... Methemoglobinemia was far more common than hepatic injury and, of course, reversible. Aplastic anemia, a ... more common result of exposure to TNT than was hepatic injury, was usuall y fatal. A YOUNG BOY APPARENTLY POISONED BY RESP &/OR PERCUTANEOUS EXPOSURE PRESENTED WITH 43% METHEMOGLOBINEMIA ON FOLLOWING DAY. CYANOSIS, DERMATITIS, JAUNDICE, ANEMIA, & PURPURA ARE SIGNS OF CHRONIC INDUST POISONING. YOUNGER WORKMEN (ABOUT 30 YR OLD) TEND TO D EVELOP TOXIC HEPATITIS; OLD ... /ONES/ TEND TO DEVELOP APLASTIC ANEMIA. AGENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ONSET OF OCCUPATIONALLY RELATED LIVER DISORDERS ARE REVIEWED ACCORDING TO THE NATURE OF THE HEPATIC INJURY THEY PRODUCE. TNT PRODUCES HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE. [R14] STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RISES IN GLUTAMIC OXALACETIC TRANSAMINASE & LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE DETERMINATIONS OCCURRED @ EXPOSURES TO TRINITROTOLUENE OF 0.8 MG/CU M & PERSISTED @ EXPOSURES OF 0.6 MG/CU M. [R15] A GROUP OF 54 TRINITROTOLUENE WORKERS WAS EXAMINED AFTER AVG EXPOSURE TIME OF 13.9 YR. EIGHTY SEVEN PERCENT HAD CATARACTS & PSYCHIATRIC INVESTIGATION SHOWED NEUROTIC SYMPTOMATOLOGY IN 43.5%. [R16] Twelve workers (nine men and three women with a mean age of 39.5 + or - 8.9 yr) with occupational exposure to trinitrotoluene had a mean duration of exposure of 6.8 + or - 4.7 yr. The general physical findings were minimal, but ophthalmologic examination s showed bilateral peripheral cataracts in six of the 12 workers. Cataracts were visible only with maximal mydriasis and were continuous or annular opacities at the equator. Only one worker with and one without cataracts had increased serum alanine amino transferase and bilirubin levels, possibly associated with trinitrotoluene. [R17] DYSPNEA, COUGH, & DIZZINESS IN MEN HANDLING CRUDE TNT HAS BEEN ATTRIBUTED TO TETRANITROMETHANE, AN IMPURITY ... . TNT ... MAY CAUSE SNEEZING, SORE THROAT ... . Toxic hepatitis has been the principal clinical manifestation of acute morbidity and mortality historically associated with TNT exposure. Subclinical effects appear to be dose related, with destruction of RBCs first appearing at exposures exceeding 0.5 m g/cu m. At exposures exceeding 1.0 mg/cu m, significant shortening of RBC survival occurs, although marked anemia is unlikely because of increased reticulocytosis of the bone marrow. At TNT exposures between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/cu m, elevation of liver functi on enzymes may occur, particularly in new employees or those recently exposed to higher TNT concentrations. There may be marked individual differences in susceptibility to liver effects, with most individuals not showing effects unless TNT concentrations considerably exceed 1.0 mg/cu m. It is noted that maintaining TNT expsoure below 0.5 mg/cu m will probably prevent any adverse liver effects. Frequent monitoring of liver function during the first 3 months of employment for new workers is recommended. . .. Lenticular opacities develop slowly over several years when exposures regularly exceed 1.0 mg/cu m. Most workers who develop opacities have other symptoms of TNT poisoning, and several have significant liver dysfunction. [R18] NTOX: AFTER 5 & 10 MO OF SKIN APPLICATION OF 225 MG/KG TRINITROTOLUENE, BLOOD HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL WAS DECR IN GUINEA PIGS. STASIS & DYSTROPHY OCCURRED IN THE LIVER. RING CATARACT DEVELOPED IN THE EYES OF 53.5% OF THE ANIMALS. [R19] AFTER 6 MO OF TOPICAL APPLICATION OF 30% TRINITROTOLUENE 5 TIMES/WK TO RATS, CHROMATID CHANGES, & CHROMOSOME BREAKS WITH DISLOCATIONS & OTHER CHANGES WERE OBSERVED IN TIBIA BONE MARROW CELLS OF 50% OF ANIMALS TREATED. [R20] TRINITROTOLUENE OF EXPLOSIVE GRADE IS MUTAGENIC TO SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. IT WAS DETECTED AS A FRAMESHIFT MUTAGEN THAT ACCELERATES REVERSION RATE OF FRAMESHIFT TESTER, TA-98. HOWEVER, THE MAJOR MICROBIAL METABOLITES OF TNT APPEARED TO BE NONMUTAGENIC. I T IS HIGHLY TOXIC TO MARINE FORMS WHICH INCL FRESH WATER UNICELLULAR GREEN ALGAE (SELENASTRUM CAPRICORNUTUM), TIDEPOOL COPEPODS (TIGRIOPUS CALIFORNICUS), & OYSTER LARVAE (CRASSOSTREA GIGAS). [R21] Dogs were dosed daily for up to 13 weeks with alpha-trinitrotoluene at 0, 0.2, 2.0, or 20 mg/kg by capsule; rats received 0, 0.002, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25% and mice received 0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.025, or 0.125% alpha-TNT in their diets over the same period. Al l species receiving the highest doses exhibited anemia, with reduced erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Alterations were observed in organ weight, including enlarged spleens (accompanied by hemosiderosis) and livers and depressed body weight and/o r body weight gain (temporary in dogs and mice). Alterations in clinical chemistry values included elevated cholesterol and depressed serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity in dogs and rats; no effect on serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase acti vity was observed. Some effects, such as SGPT depression in rats, appeared after 13 weeks, suggesting a cumulative toxicity. Reduced testes size was observed in rats at the highest dose regardless of length of exposure. Most of the toxic effects were rev ersible but testicular atrophy was not in rats allowed a 4 week recovery period after treatment. Signs of anemia were present at intermediate dose levels. [R22] When injected ip to male rats, trinitrotoluene (100 mg/kg) caused damage in cerebral, hepatic and renal biomembranes and cell organelles. Morphological studies showed damaged mitochondria, dilatation of Golgi apparatus, vacuolization, swelling of cytopla sm, and accumulation of lipid material. TNT increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in liver and kidney. Renal epoxide hydrolase activity was also enhanced. [R23] 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene gave positive responses in the P388 mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay [R44] A two-stage model waste water purifier consisting of an aerator inoculated with Azotobacter agilis and an overflow basin inoculated with conventional sewage sludge accounted for a 99.6% reduction of alpha-TNT at concn of 128 mg/l from a synthetic wastewa ter(2). However only moderate amounts of oxygen were consumed, thus absorption probably removed some of the alpha-TNT(3). BOD tests on pure alpha-TNT and TNT waste water from the counter current-continuous flow TNT manufacturing process revealed that alp ha-TNT was oxidized at slow rates(4,5). Alpha-TNT was also oxidized during BOD tests in which the BOD water was supplemented with glucose(1). However attempts to relate BOD to the alpha-TNT removed were unsuccessful. It is likely that higher alpha-TNT co ncentrations are toxic to certain TNT oxidizing microorganisms, which may prevent microbial metabolism of alpha-TNT(3). [R45] A treatability study employing static tube runs indicated that alpha-TNT can be oxidized at slow rates from alpha-TNT waste diluted with the domestic waste of an Army Ammunition plant, however the rate of bioadsorption or bioprecipitation was greater tha n the oxidation rate(2). Furthermore, activated sludge acclimated to TNT-waste for 10 days was used as inoculum for five differing continuous flow runs with alpha-TNT concn at 5 mg intervals between 5 and 25 mg/l. Fifteen treatability runs of three diffe ring detention times for each concn maintained a 65% average alpha-TNT removal efficiency and generally the removal efficiencies tended to decrease with a decrease in detention time and increase in alpha-TNT concn(2). A portion of the alpha-TNT loss was due to bioadsorption on the activated sludge microorganisms and not due to molecular transformation(1). Composting studies have shown that thermophilic microorganisms produce the same reduction products as mesophilic microbes, no ring cleavage occurs and a large percentage of C14 labeled alpha-TNT is bound to the humus fraction(3,4,5). [R46] Raw sewage was found to be ineffective in degrading alpha-TNT, however a sewage sludge digester supernatant liquor caused a 64% reduction in alpha-TNT within 6 days(1). Alpha-TNT was reduced by hydrogen in the presence of enzyme preparations from Veillon ella alkalescens, an obligate anaerobe, as well as the aerobic systems of Escherichia coli and Psuedomonas sp.(2). [R47] Microbial degradation ... half-lives are longer (19-25 days) than the half-lives of photolysis and occur after a lag period (13-20 days). The rate of transformation is increased by the presence of additional organic or nutritional material. [R48] In lab microcosm studies...90% of a 10 ppm TNT solution was transformed following 3 days of incubation. [R49] Biological degration by bacterial and fungal species occurs slowly in the environment, with slightly higher rates in the presence of other carbon sources. However ... biological degration ... may not extend to cleavage of the TNT ring. [R50] ABIO: Photochemical or chemical reactions of TNT and other cmpd in the waste /water/ result in the formation of a variety of azo and azoxy oligomers with 3 or 4 aromatic rings per molecule and many smaller molecules also. These cmpd are similar in struct ure to some azo dyes. GC-EC measurements demonstrated that a sea water solution at a pH of 8.1 with 95 ppm 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (alpha-TNT) underwent no change in concn after 108 days(2), thus evidencing the stability of alpha-TNT against hydrolysis in water under neutral co nditions(1). Generally nitro-aromatics are resistant to hydrolysis(7,8) and thus alpha-TNT is not expected to hydrolyse under environmental conditions(1,3). Photolysis studies comparing river waters and distilled water have shown that the rate of alpha-T NT photolysis is directly related to increases in pH(4,5) and organic matter content(6). The photolytic rate of alpha-TNT also increased over time due to increased products of photolysis(6). The rate constants for Sunlit Holston River Waconda Bay, Searsv ille Pond and distilled waters were 1.2X10-3, 1.5X10-4, 5.8X10-4 and 1.7X10-5/sec, respectively which correspond to half-lives of about 10 min, 1.3 hrs, 20 min and 11.3 hrs(3). [R51] In decreasing order of quantity;: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzonitrile, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, including trace amounts of 2,2',6,6'-tetranitro-4,4'-azoxytoluene, 4,4',6,6'-tetranitro-2-2'-azoxytoluene, 2',4-dimethyl-3-3',5,5'-tetranitro -ONN-azoxybenzene and 2,4'-dimethyl-3,3',5,5'- tetranitro-ONN-azoxybenzene were identified as photolytic products of alpha-TNT(1). The principal evidence suggests transformation via a triplet- sensitized mechanism(2,3,4) which either permits a weak nucle ophile to attack and remove a NO2- or X- group(3), or allows the formation of a complex with humic acid that alters the UV absorbancies responsible for the photodegradation of alpha-TNT(2). [R52] Limited information regarding photolytic processes in soil suggest that alpha-TNT in surface layers is photolyzed to trinitrobenzene and trinitrobenzaldehyde(1). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of alpha-TNT with photochemically produced hy droxyl radicals has been estimated to be 1.46X10-13 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 110 days at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(2). [R53] The photolysis half-lives ... vary with seasons and latitude ... . Summer half-life for latitudes 20, 40, and 50 deg N was 14 hr; winter half-life for 20, 40, and 50 deg N was 22, 45, and 84 NW respectively. [R54] A study of natural Potomac River water spiked with 20 mg/l TNT and microbial sediments ... /showed/ complete disappearance of TNT in 6-8 days in sunlight, while 730 days required for 90% disappearance in shade. [R55] Based upon a water solubility of 130 ppm at 20 deg C(1), the bioconcentration factor (BCF) for alpha-TNT can be estimated to be 40 from a recommended regression-derived equation(2). These BCF values are not indicative of significant bioconcentratio n. [R56] Bioconcentration factors ... were 9.5 and 338 for muscle and visrera, respectively, of bluegills. These values were point estimates from the uptake curve ... . [R27] Bioconcentration factor estimates included 210 to 2030 for four, non-native fish species and a calculated ... value of 20.5 (based on octanol water partition cooefficient). [R28] Bioconcentration factor 11.5 /was determined from the estimated oil/ /water partition coefficient/ [R57] KOC: Kp values for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (alpha-TNT) sorption on 4 aquatic sediments measured 5.5, 14.3, 16.5 and 22.2 after 24-hr equilibration time, suggesting that the sorption of alpha-TNT is low(1). However most of the material absorbed is strongly bound and desorption from sediment is slow(1). Furthermore sorption of alpha-TNT increases with increases in pH and temperature(1). Transformation products of alpha-TNT may absorb to sediments with the same intensity as alpha-TNT(1). Kp values of 5 sedim ents averaged 53 with a range between 35 and 84(2). The corresponding Koc measures, which range between 1100 and 1900 and average 1600(2), indicate a low soil mobili2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (alpha-TNT) in solution was lost to evaporation over an 18 day stri pping experiment in which waste water from a TNT manufacturing process was aerated(4). Based upon a water solubility of 130 ppm at 20 deg C(1) and a vapor pressure of 1.99X10-4 mm Hg at 20 deg C(2), the Henry's Law Constant for alpha-TNT can be calculate d to be 4.57X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(3). This value of Henry's Law Constant indicates extremely slow volatilization from environmental waters(3). The volatilization half-life from a model river (20 deg C; 1 meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/ sec) has been estimated to be 119 days(3). [R59] SURFACE WATER: For years waste munitions were discarded at sea. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (alpha-TNT) was not detected in ocean waters near a dump site 200 miles off the coast of Florida nor one 45 miles west of San Francisco(1). Neither was alpha-TNT detected in sea water 172 miles south-southwest of Charleston SC, or 85 miles west of Flattery, WA(2). [R60] GROUND WATER: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene was detected in contaminated groundwater beneath and down gradient from the disposal beds of the Hawthorne Naval Ammunition Depot, NV at a maximum concn of 620 ug/l(1). [R61] 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene was detected in the effluent water from the Radford TNT Manufacturing Plant, Radford Va, at concn from 101 to 143 ppm(1). [R62] Levels of nitrate nitrogen for trinitrotoluene (TNT) in industrial wastewaters was reported as 53-213 mg/l. /Trinitrotoluene/ [R63] For years waste munitions were discarded at sea. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene was not detected in ocean floor sediments near dump sites 172 miles south-southwest of Charleston SC, or 85 miles west of Flattery, WA(1). [R64] The 8 hr time weighted average TNT exposures ranged from ... <0.01 mg/cu m to 1.84 mg/cu m with ... 12.2% of the workers exposed to levels >0.5 mg/cu m. [R65] 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (alpha-TNT) is mainly used as a military explosive and propellant(1). Hence alpha-TNT may be released into the environment in effluents generated at sites where it is produced or used. The most probable exposure to 2,4,6-trini trotoluene would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or vapor inhalation of alpha-TNT at sites where the compound is produced or used(1). [R66] NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 69 workers are potentially exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in the USA(1). [R67] An interim /acceptable daily intake/ of 44.25 ug/l was calculated /from bioconcentration factor and a no observable effect level/ for the protection of human health. [R68] Based on USEPA (1980) guidlines ... a human acceptable daily intake of 0.28 mg/day /was calculated/. Insertion of this /value/ into the human health criteria equation ... gives a human health criterion of 134.96 ug/l. [R69] OSHA: 8 hr Time-Weighted avg: 1.5 mg/cu m (skin). [R70] Meets criteria for OSHA medical records rule. [R71] TLV: 8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 0.5 mg/cu m, skin (1986) Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day, and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded. BEI (Biological Exposure Index): Methemoglobin in blood during or end of shift is 1.5% of hemoglobin. The determinant is usually present in a significant amt in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. Such b ackground levels are incl in the BEI value. The determinant is nonspecific, since it is observed after exposure to some other chemicals. These nonspecific tests are preferred because they are easy to use and usually offer a better correlation with exposu re than specific tests. In such instances, a BEI for a specific, less quantitative biological determinant is recommended as a confirmatory test. The biological determinant is an indicator of exposure to the chemical, but the quantitative interpretation o f the measurements is ambiguous. /Methemoglobin inducers/ Tenax sorbents efficiently trap the vapors of trinitrotoluene at 2-40 ug/40 l air. [R72] TOTAL NITROGEN IN TRINITROTOLUENE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS WAS DETERMINED BY AUTOMATED CD REDN METHOD. [R73] A GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY & AN AUTOMATED COLORIMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING TRINITROTOLUENE IN WASTE WATER WERE COMPARED. [R74] Explosive components (including trinitrotoluene) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography at a pendent mercury drop electrode. [R75] The determination of trinitrotoluene vapors by chemiluminescence and the effect of NADHoxidase in the TNTase reagent are discussed. [R76] Samples of trinitrotoluene were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with detection at 280 nm. [R77] High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate nitroglycerin, ethylene glycol dinitrate, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine, pentaerthritol tetranitrate, and tetryl. Limits of detection were 0.0001-0.01 ug. [R78] Detection of explosives (including trinitrotoluene) in concn extracts by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. [R79] Single sweep polarography ... determined TNT concn in water as low as 50 ppb and is applicable to both field and laboratory conditions. [R80] A spectrophotometric method has been used online to monitor carbon columns in wastewater treatment for TNT at concn as low as 0.1 ppm. [R81] A fluorescent dyed quartenary ammonium ion exchange resin /detected/ TNT at 70 ppb levels in wastewater after irradiation with UV. [R81] Spectrometric methods ... include infared, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray, mass, negative-ion mass, plasma chromatography mass (detected TNT in air at 10 pp trillion), and chemical ionization mass. [R81] The application of liquid chromatography/thermospray/mass spectrometry to the separation and identification of commercial and military explosives was investigated. The liquid chromatography was performed using a reverse phase column with an isocratic mob ile phase and a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. These conditions resulted in retention times of <3 min for common explosives, permitting rapid analysis. The thermospray was operated in the filament-on ionization mode which yielded unique spectra for ... trinitr otoluene ... . [R82] A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure is described for detn of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its metabolites /in rabbit blood samples/. RP-8 reverse-phase columns were used for high-performance liquid chromatography sepn; acetonitrile-water of different concns was used as the mobile phase, and the UV detector wavelength was 214 nm. [R83]

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