|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Tap water, 1.1-59.7 parts per trillion(8). U.S., 9 cities, 78% pos,
<1-<2 parts per trillion(12). Great Lakes, 12 municipalities, Jan (Aug), 1980, 2.4-570.8 parts per
trillion (0.6-1269 parts per trillion), avg 62.9 parts per trillion (avg 126.1 parts per trillion) .
New York State, 1979, public drinking water wells, anthracene and phenanthrene 39 wells, 18%
pos, 12.0 ppb . Identified, not quantified, drinking water concentrates(9). Identified, not
quantified, in drinking water(11). The Netherlands, drinking water from bankfiltered Rhine water,
30 parts per trillion . Finland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, May-July, 1980, 0.04-9.7 parts per
trillion(6). Norwegian tapwater, 0.35 parts per trillion(10). Ottawa, Canada, Jan-Feb, 1978,
>0.52-2.2 ppb . Kitakyushu, Japan, 1.7 ppm . Eastern Ontario, Canada, 5 municipal
treatment plants, 0.1-4.8 parts per trillion, avg 1.6 parts per trillion(7).
SURFACE WATERS: USEPA STORET database. 776 samples, 4.0% pos, median <10.0
ppb(7). Delaware River, 30 samples, 3% pos . Lower Tennessee River, water and sediments,
12.1 ppb . U.S., 114 heavily industrialized river basins, 204 sites, 1 pos, detected, not
quantified(6). Dohkai Bay, Japan, Oct, 1977 identified (not quantified) . Tamar Estuary, UK,
4.9 parts per trillion . Rhine River, 1981, 15 parts per trillion, 1982, 13 parts per trillion .
Trace quantities of anthracene were detected in Lakes Michigan(8), Erie(12) and Ontario(12).
Anthracene was found in 2 of 4 Mississippi River water samples at concn of 3 and 4 ng/L(9).
Anthracene was detected in Baltic waters off the coast of Poland(10); and in the Yellow River,
Peoples Republic of China in March, August, and October at concn of 7.7, 0.8, and 9.5 ng/L,
RAINWATER: Portland, OR, Feb-April, 1984, 7 sample periods, 2-5 days long: Anthracene
dissolved in rainwater, 2.0-7.9 parts per trillion, avg 5.1 parts per trillion ; anthracene concn of
particulate matter in rain, 1.3-10.0 parts per trillion . Great Lakes, 1.3-2.3 parts per trillion, avg
2.0 parts per trillion . Southern Norway, Nov 1974-March 1975, detected, not quantified .
OTHER WATER: Lakes near Mt. St. Helens, WA, sampled beginning 15 months after the first
major eruption, samples from Aug, 1981-Aug, 1982, Spirit Lake, epilimnion, 1.5 ppb,
hypolimnion, 1.8 ppb, Coldwater Lake, epilimnion, 1.8 ppb .
In general, anthracene occurs in ambient waters at a frequency of 4% and at a median
concentration of <10 ug/l. Anthracene has been reported to be present in groundwater from a few
contaminated sites. The detection of up to 168.6 ug/l of anthracene was reported in
groundwater from a creosote waste site in Conroe, TX. The detection of anthracene in drinking
waters throughout the world have been reported. The highest concentration of combined
anthracene/phenanthrene at 1269 ng/l was reported in drinking water in Sault Ste. Marie. Finished
waters from 13 different locations throughout the United States, however, failed to show the
presence of any anthracene.
DRINKING WATER: Anthracene was detected in drinking water in Norway and Philadelphia,
PA . In New York State, 7 of 39 drinking water wells tested positive for anthracene with a
maximum concn of 21 ug/L .
GROUNDWATER: Groundwater near closed coal-tar distillation and wood-treating plant, St.
Louis Park, MN, 68 ppb . Conroes, TX, near creosote waste site, Oct 1981-March, 1983, 13
wells, 54% pos, 1.7-205.9 ppt; soil cores, ppm (depth, feet). 2.16 (0.7-1.8), 0.14 , 0.03 (10)
not detected (20), 0.04 (24-25), 0.03 (26.5) .
USEPA STORET database, 1268 samples, 5.0% pos, median <10.0 ppb . Industrial
wastewater, avg ug/l, raw (treated), iron/steel manufacturing, 15 samples, 80% pos, <200 (15
samples, 93% pos, <46); aluminum forming, 5 samples, 60% pos, <100 (25 samples, 8% pos,
<6.5); foundries, 11 samples, 100% pos, 2400 (10 samples, 100% pos, 12); photography, 9
samples, 22% pos (2 samples, 0% pos), nonferrous metals, 59 samples, 15% samples, >10 ug/l,
160 (55 samples, 1.8% >10 ug/l, 3.8); organic chemicals, 8 detections, 390 (4 detections, 10) .
Fly ash from municipal incinerator, 8 samples, 100% pos, 4-380 ppb, avg 148 ppb . U.S. urban
runoff, up to July, 1982, 15 cities, 27% pos, 86 samples, 8% pos, 1-10 ppb . Coke plant waste
water, 70.2-101 ppb . Exhaust emissions from gasoline engines, 534-642 ug/l fuel burned(6).
EFFL: Anthracene at a concentration range of <13-105 ng/l was reported in the effluent from a
sewage treatment plant in Norway. It was also reported in the concentration range of <0.03-0.84
ug/l in the effluent from coal oven plants It has been reported to be present in several surface
Coal tar which contains phenanthrene/anthracene mixtures at an average concn of 25 mg/g is
commonly used as a coating to prevent corrosion of storage tanks in water distribution systems in
New York State . The phenanthrene/anthracene concn of influent and effluent of 125 tanks
averaged 0.019 and 0.210 ug/L, respectively . Leachate from these tanks also contained
Anthracene was detected in coal dust from a transfer operation in VA at concn ranging from 2571
to 16231 ng/g with an average concn of 8169 ng/g . Runoff from coal piles in IL contained
anthracene at an average concn of 0.6 ug/L . Coal-fired plants emitted anthracene to the air at
concn ranging from 0.4 to 100 ng/cu m . Anthracene was identified as a stack emission and in
grate and fly ash from coal combustion . Anthracene was detected in the waste water of a coal
gasification plant at a concn of 0.2 mg/L(6). Anthracene was also detected as a stack emission and
in grate ash of waste incinerators . Incinerator fly ash contained anthracene at concn ranging
from 10 to 500 ng/g with an average from 5 samples of 146 ng/g(7). A sludge incinerator emitted
anthracene to the air at concn ranging from 0.2-7.7 ug/sample .
Diesel fueled engines emit anthracene to the atmosphere(1-3). Anthracene/phenanthrene was
emitted from a gasoline power turbine to the air at concn ranging from 0.53-106.00 ng/cu m, with
an average from 8 samples of 17.31 ng/cu m . Anthracene was found in 4 gasoline fuels at
undetectable levels and 0.33, 2.6, and 2.7 mg/L and was released to the air by automobiles in the
gaseous phase at and average concn of 5.3, 12, 21, and 28 ug/km and as particulates at an
average concn of 0.11, 0.08, 0.24 ug/km and undetectable levels, respectively .
Anthracene/phenanthrene was contained in the dissolved air flotation (DAF) waste water effluent
of a class B refinery at a concn of 168 ng/g(6). Anthracene was emitted from a simulated rubber
combustion operation at a concn of 85000 ug/kg of rubber(7).
Soil was found to contain anthracene after the spreading of sewage sludge . Smoke from wood
burning stoves contain anthracene . The concn of anthracene in the soil surrounding waste pits
for natural gas production and processing ranged between 260 and 670 ug/kg and 36 to 105
ug/g . The concn of anthracene in the soil water of the same pits ranged from undetectable
levels to 2200 ug/L . Anthracene was emitted at an average concn of 240 and 140 ug/kg during
the pouring, cooling, and shakeout of aluminum and iron castings, respectively, made with the
evaporative pattern casting process(6).