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Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 120821
CASRN 120-82-1
Synonyms1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
Benzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 502.2
EPA Method 503.1
EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 612
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8021
EPA Method 8120
EPA Method 8270
EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaC6H3Cl3

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use Solvent in chemical manufacturing, dyes & intermediates, dielectric fluid, synthetic transformer oils, lubricants, heat-transfer medium, insecticides. Former use: As a soil treatment for termite control. Used as a comonomer with p-Dichlorobenzene in the production of arylene sulfide polymers. /Used as a dye carrier , intermediate in the manufacture of herbicides and higher chlorinated benzenes, dielectric fluid, solvent, heat-transfer medium. Used in degreasing agents, septic tank and drain cleaners, wood preservatives, and abrasive formulations.
Apparent Color Colorless liquid ; Rhombic crystals
Odor Aromatic
Boiling Point 213.5 deg C at 760 mm Hg; 84.8 deg C at 10 mm Hg
Melting Point 17 deg C
Molecular Weight 181.46
Density 1.4542 at 20 deg C/4 deg C
Odor Threshold Concentration INDUSTRIAL DATA REPORT AN ODOR THRESHOLD OF APPROX 3 PPM Low odor threshold= 24.0 mg/cu m; High odor threshold= 24.0 mg/cu m; Irritating concn= 40.0 mg/cu m
Sensitivity Data CUTANEOUS EXPOSURE TO 1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE CAN CAUSE DERMAL IRRITATION INDUSTRIAL DATA REPORT MINIMAL EYE & THROAT IRRITATION AT 3-5 PPM IN CERTAIN PEOPLE. Solid 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is irritating & causes severe pain on contact with eyes. Chlorinated benzenes are irritating to the skin, conjunctiva, and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Chlorinated benzenes
Environmental Impact 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene's release to the environment will occur through its manufacture and use as a dye carrier (major use), intermediate in the manufacture of herbicides and higher chlorinated benzenes, dielectric fluid, solvent, heat-transfer medium, and its use in degreasing agents, septic tank and drain cleaners, wood preservatives, and abrasive formulations. If it is released to the soil it will probably adsorb to the soil and therefore will not leach appreciably through soil. However, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) has been detected in some groundwater samples. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene will not hydrolyze or biodegrade in groundwater, but it may biodegrade slowly in the soil based upon the data from one experiment. If 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is released to water it will adsorb to the sediments and may bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. It will not hydrolyze in surface waters but it may be subject to slow biodegradation. It is expected to evaporate from water with half-lives of 11-22 days for evaporation from a study of a physically mixed, 5.4 m deep seawater microcosm and a half-life of 4.2 hr predicted for evaporation from a model river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. Adsorption to sediments or absorption by microorganisms may minimize the rate of evaporation. A half-life of 450 years has been reported for sunlight photolysis in surface waters at 40 deg latitude in summer. If 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is released to the atmosphere, it may react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a resulting estimated vapor phase half-life in the atmosphere of 18.5 days. Exposure to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene will result mainly from occupational exposure during its manufacture and use, while general population exposure will result from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and food, especially contaminated fish.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) is released to the soil it will be expected to adsorb to the organic matter in soil and therefore should not leach appreciably to the groundwater. However, 1,2,4-TCB has been detected in some groundwater samples which indicates that it can be transported there by some process. It will not hydrolyze but it may biodegrade slowly in the soil based upon the data from one experiment ; It will not be expected to biodegrade in the groundwater . Sorption of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene to a series of subsurface soil samples has been reported . Desorption of sorbate from the sorbent matrix provides better precision than conventional solution phase concentration differences when sorption is low . Clay mineral content influences sorption on low C sorbents . This is important in the movement sorption on low hazardous material from soil into the groundwater . Outdoor experiments with (14)C-1,2,4-trichlorobenzene indicate that the time course of formation and fate of bound residues in soils and plants is characterized by a very slow decrease of residue levels in soil, indicating that biodegradation of bound residues hardly exceeds their reformation from the parent compound during one vegetation period . The portion of total residues occurring as bound residues increases with time, indicating that bound residues are more persistent than the unbound residues . AQUATIC FATE: If 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) is released to water it will be expected to adsorb to the sediment. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms has been measured and values ranging from 51 to 2800 have been reported. It will not hydrolyze. Although no data were found concerning biodegradation in natural waters, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene may be subject to biodegradation in such waters based on limited laboratory tests using various wastewaters as sources for microbes. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene may be subject to significant evaporation from water with half-lives of 11-22 days for evaporation from a study of a mixed, 5.4 m deep seawater microcosm . Using a calculated Henry's Law constant, a half-life of 4.2 hr was predicted for evaporation from a model river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. Adsorption to sediments or absorption by microorganisms may minimize the evaporation process. It will not be expected to appreciably directly photolyze in surface waters based on a reported half-life for sunlight photolysis in surface water at 40 deg latitude in summer of 450 yr . Half-lives of 2.1, 1.5 and 28 days were estimated in rivers in the Netherlands based upon monitoring data . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is released into the atmosphere it will be subject to reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated vapor phase half-life in the atmosphere of 18.5 days(1,SRC). It will not be expected to be subject to appreciable direct photolysis .
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: US, 1976-77, 11 cities, 91% pos, 110 samples, 0.01-0.53 ppb, avg 0.09 ppb . Ontario, Canada, 1980, 3 cities, 1-4 parts per trillion, avg 2 parts per trillion . Bankfiltered Rhine River tapwater, >5 ppb . GROUNDWATER: The Netherlands, 1976, 250 groundwater pumping stations, max concn, 1.2 ppb . SURFACE WATER: Niagara Falls and Buffalo, NY, avg 0.5 parts per trillion . In 1980: Lake Ontario, 5 stations, 0.3-1 parts per trillion, avg 0.6 parts per trillion, Lake Huron, 0.1-0.4 parts per trillion, avg 0.2 parts per trillion; Grand River, Ontario, not detected-8 parts per trillion, avg 2 parts per trillion; Niagara River, 4 sites, 0.1-107 parts per trillion, (max just below chemical manufacturer's effluent discharge), avg of lowest 3 sites 6.4 parts per trillion . Niagara River, Niagara-on-the-Lake: 1981-83, 104 samples, 100% pos, 5.8-120 parts per trillion, avg 16 parts per trillion, median 12 parts per trillion ; 1981, 4.9-52 parts per trillion, avg 11 parts per trillion, median 9.1 parts per trillion . Rhine River: 1977-82, detected (<0.1 ppb) ; 0.05 ppb(6). RAIN/SNOW: Portland, OR, 1982, 4 rain events, 25% pos, 0.10 parts per trillion ; 1984, 7 sampling periods, 43% pos, 17 total days, 0.13-0.45 parts per trillion, avg pos 0.25 parts per trillion .Southeast Portland, 1982, 5 rain events, 40% pos, 0.086 parts per trillion and 0.11 parts per trillion . SURFACE WATER: Capillary column gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on water from a river located in the North Carolina Piedmont sampled at three locations several times during a thirteen month period after isolation either by resin adsorption or direct methylene chloride liquid-liquid extraction. Of the 48 distinct SOCs detected, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene was found frequently . Concentrations of the SOCs were in the ng/L to ug/L range . SEAWATER: Southern North Sea (Rhine/Meuse Estuary, Aug 1983-Jul 1984) <0.3-24 parts per trillion, 1.0 parts per trillion median concn . EFFL: Concentration in advanced wastewater treatment plant - influent 0.11-0.46 parts per trillion, effluent not detectable to 0.01 parts per trillion, 97.8 - >99% removed . USA, several industrial wastewater surveys 1978-79, 3,266 samples, 0.92% pos, 12-607 ppb, avg 161 ppb . Major Southern California municipal wastewaters, 1976, 6 sites: 2 test periods each, 5 sites: 0.018-100 ppb, avg 1.2 ppb, last site, 43 and 100 ppb, avg mass emission rates to Southern California Bight, 1975-76, 10-1580 kg/yr . Hazardous waste incinerator effluents, concn in extracts of effluent gases, 220,000 ppm . USA National Urban Runoff Program, 15 cities, 86 samples, not detected . Major Southern California Municipal wastewaters, 1978, 8 stations, summer, 0.007-2.2 ppb, winter, <0.01-0.03 ppb . Detected at 1.2 ng/cu m in stack effluent from coal-fired power plants in Ames, IA . Detected in US industrial wastewaters (number of samples/% pos, max/avg concn (ppb)): foundries, raw water, 2/100% pos, 1000 max/500 avg, treated water, 2/100% pos, 570/290. textile mills, raw water, 50/16% pos, 2700/410, treated water, 50/32% pos, 1400/14, electrical/electronic components, 2/100%, 27,000/16,600 (4,500 min concn) . 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene was detected in municipal waste water at Port Loma sewage treatment plant, at concn of 0.23 ug/l (Fall, 1976) and 0.01 ug/l (Summer, 1976), respectively. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene was detected in municipal waste water at Oxnard, CA sewage treatment plant at concn of 0.9 ug/l (Fall) and 0.25 ug/l (Summer), respectively. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene was detected in municipal waste water at the Orange County Sewage Dept, LA at a concn of 0.30 ug/l. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene was detected in 5 mile effluent and municipal waste water at the sewage treatment works, Hyperion, LA, at concn of 6.7 ug/l and 3.1 ug/l respectively. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene was detected in municipal waste water at the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (location not specified), at concn of 6.0 ug/l (Fall) and 1.8 ug/l (Summer, 1976). 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene was detected in industrial discharge at Chattanooga Creek, TN, at a concn of 500 ug/l (Spring, 1976).

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