SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 123728
CASRN 123-72-8
SynonymsButyraldehyde
Analytical Methods EPA Method 554
EPA Method 8315
Molecular FormulaC4H8O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use CHIEFLY IN MFR OF RUBBER ACCELERATORS, SYNTHETIC RESINS, SOLVENTS, PLASTICIZERS SYNTHETIC FLAVORING IN FOODS SYNTHESIS OF BUTANOL, POLY(VINYL BUTYRAL), 2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL AND 1-HEXANOL; RAW MATERIAL FOR MFG OF BUTYRIC ACID AND BUTYRIC ANHYDRIDE, PREPARATION OF OIL SOLUBLE RESINS. /Mfr of high polymers
Consumption Patterns USED CHIEFLY AS AN INTERMEDIATE (1978 DATA)
Apparent Color COLORLESS LIQUID; Water-white liquid
Odor CHARACTERISTIC, PUNGENT, ALDEHYDE ODOR
Boiling Point 74.8 DEG C
Melting Point -99 DEG C
Molecular Weight 72.10
Density 0.8016 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Sensitivity Data Eye, nose, skin, and throat irritant.
Environmental Impact Butyraldehyde is released to the environment in emissions from combustion processes such as gasoline and diesel engines and wood burning. It is formed in the atmosphere through photochemical oxidation of other hydrocarbons. It occurs naturally in various plants. If released to the atmosphere, butyraldehyde will degrade readily by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 16.4 hr) and direct photolysis. During intense smog-pollution episodes, the natural formation rate of butyraldehyde can exceed the degradation rate. Physical removal from air by wet deposition can occur. If released to soil or water, the major degradation pathway is expected to be biodegradation. Physical removal from soil surfaces or water can occur through volatilization. Estimated Koc values (9-71) suggest that butyraldehyde will leach in soil. Occupational exposure to butyraldehyde occurs through inhalation of vapor and dermal contact.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: The primary degradation process in soil is expected to be biodegradation. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that butyraldehyde is readily biodegradable. Estimated Koc values of 9 and 71 suggest that butyraldehyde will leach readily(1,SRC). Butyraldehyde's vapor pressure of 111.4 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates that it will evaporate rapidly from surfaces. AQUATIC FATE: The major environmental fate processes for butyraldehyde in water are biodegradation and volatilization. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that butyraldehyde is readily biodegradable. Volatilization half-lives of 9 hr and 4.1 days have been estimated for a model river (one meter deep) and an environmental pond, respectively(2,3). Aquatic hydrolysis, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be important fate processes. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: In excess of 99% of the butyraldehyde present in the atmosphere will occur in the vapor phase, although a small fraction has been shown to occur in the particulate aerosol . Vapor phase butyraldehyde will degrade relatively rapidly in an average ambient atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 16.4 hours)(2,SRC). Direct photolysis may also be a major degradation process. During intense smog-pollution episodes, the natural formation rate of butyraldehyde can exceed the degradation rate . The detection of butyraldehyde in cloud and fog water indicates that physical removal from air can occur through wet deposition.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Butyraldehyde has reportedly been detected in drinking water samples collected in the US (concn or locations not reported) . SURFACE WATER: Butyraldehyde was qualitatively detected in Niagara River water flowing into Lake Ontario . SEAWATER: Seawater samples collected from the Straits of Florida on Feb 27, 1968 contained butyraldehyde levels ranging from a trace (0.005 mg/L) to 0.048 mg/L . RAIN/SNOW: Butyraldehyde levels of 0-0.52 ug/mL (mean 0.07 ug/mL) have been detected in cloud water collected from Henninger Flats, CA ; levels of 0-0.052 ug/mL have been detected in fog water collected from Pasadena, CA . EFFL: A butyraldehyde concn of 42 ppb was detected in an aqueous effluent from a coal gasification facility in Morgantown, WV . Butyraldehyde emission rates of 0.01-0.90 g/kg wood have been detected in emissions from fireplaces burning jack pine and red oak wood . Butyraldehyde was detected in 2 of 63 effluents (concn < 100 ppb) collected from chemical manufacturing plants across the US .

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