|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 554||EPA Method 8315
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| CHIEFLY IN MFR OF RUBBER ACCELERATORS, SYNTHETIC RESINS,
SYNTHETIC FLAVORING IN FOODS
SYNTHESIS OF BUTANOL, POLY(VINYL BUTYRAL), 2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL AND
1-HEXANOL; RAW MATERIAL FOR MFG OF BUTYRIC ACID AND BUTYRIC
ANHYDRIDE, PREPARATION OF OIL SOLUBLE RESINS.
/Mfr of high polymers
|Consumption Patterns|| USED CHIEFLY AS AN INTERMEDIATE (1978 DATA)
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQUID; Water-white liquid
|Odor|| CHARACTERISTIC, PUNGENT, ALDEHYDE ODOR
|Boiling Point|| 74.8 DEG C
|Melting Point|| -99 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 72.10
|Density|| 0.8016 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Sensitivity Data|| Eye, nose, skin, and throat irritant.
|Environmental Impact|| Butyraldehyde is released to the environment in emissions from combustion processes
such as gasoline and diesel engines and wood burning. It is formed in the atmosphere through
photochemical oxidation of other hydrocarbons. It occurs naturally in various plants. If released
to the atmosphere, butyraldehyde will degrade readily by reaction with photochemically produced
hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 16.4 hr) and direct photolysis. During intense smog-pollution
episodes, the natural formation rate of butyraldehyde can exceed the degradation rate. Physical
removal from air by wet deposition can occur. If released to soil or water, the major degradation
pathway is expected to be biodegradation. Physical removal from soil surfaces or water can occur
through volatilization. Estimated Koc values (9-71) suggest that butyraldehyde will leach in soil.
Occupational exposure to butyraldehyde occurs through inhalation of vapor and dermal contact.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: The primary degradation process in soil is expected to be
biodegradation. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated that butyraldehyde is
readily biodegradable. Estimated Koc values of 9 and 71 suggest that butyraldehyde will leach
readily(1,SRC). Butyraldehyde's vapor pressure of 111.4 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates that it
will evaporate rapidly from surfaces.
AQUATIC FATE: The major environmental fate processes for butyraldehyde in water are
biodegradation and volatilization. A number of biological screening studies have demonstrated
that butyraldehyde is readily biodegradable. Volatilization half-lives of 9 hr and 4.1 days have
been estimated for a model river (one meter deep) and an environmental pond, respectively(2,3).
Aquatic hydrolysis, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be
important fate processes.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: In excess of 99% of the butyraldehyde present in the atmosphere will
occur in the vapor phase, although a small fraction has been shown to occur in the particulate
aerosol . Vapor phase butyraldehyde will degrade relatively rapidly in an average ambient
atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of
16.4 hours)(2,SRC). Direct photolysis may also be a major degradation process. During intense
smog-pollution episodes, the natural formation rate of butyraldehyde can exceed the degradation
rate . The detection of butyraldehyde in cloud and fog water indicates that physical removal
from air can occur through wet deposition.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Butyraldehyde has reportedly been detected in drinking water
samples collected in the US (concn or locations not reported) .
SURFACE WATER: Butyraldehyde was qualitatively detected in Niagara River water flowing
into Lake Ontario .
SEAWATER: Seawater samples collected from the Straits of Florida on Feb 27, 1968 contained
butyraldehyde levels ranging from a trace (0.005 mg/L) to 0.048 mg/L .
RAIN/SNOW: Butyraldehyde levels of 0-0.52 ug/mL (mean 0.07 ug/mL) have been detected in
cloud water collected from Henninger Flats, CA ; levels of 0-0.052 ug/mL have been detected
in fog water collected from Pasadena, CA .
EFFL: A butyraldehyde concn of 42 ppb was detected in an aqueous effluent from a coal
gasification facility in Morgantown, WV . Butyraldehyde emission rates of 0.01-0.90 g/kg
wood have been detected in emissions from fireplaces burning jack pine and red oak wood .
Butyraldehyde was detected in 2 of 63 effluents (concn < 100 ppb) collected from chemical
manufacturing plants across the US .