SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 123911
CASRN 123-91-1
Synonymsp-Dioxane
1,4-Dioxane
1,4-Diethylene dioxide
Analytical Methods EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaC4H8O2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use WETTING & DISPERSING AGENT IN TEXTILE PROCESSING, DYE-BATHS, STAIN & PRINTING COMPOSITIONS; USED IN CLEANING AND DETERGENT PREPARATIONS, ADHESIVES, COSMETICS, DEODORANTS, FUMIGANTS, EMULSIONS & POLISHING COMPOSITIONS Used in lacquers, paints, varnishes, paint and varnish removers. Solvent in pulping of wood In dipping, roller coating, tumbling, knifing, and brushing of natural, and synthetic resin-based varnishes, lacquers, and paints. Solvent for fats, oils, waxes, and natural and synthetic resins. Degreasing agent/. Working fluid for scintillation counter samples. Used in purification of drugs. Preparation of tissue sections for histology. Former use As a solvent in spectroscopic and photometric measurements. Is reliable only in the absence of oxygen. Used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents, particularly, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and in solvent applications. 1,4-Dioxane is used in cosmetic products, such as shampoos and bath preparations.
Consumption Patterns Approximately 90% of the 1,4-dioxane produced annually is used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents, particularly, 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The remainder of the 1,4-dioxane production is used in solvent applications (1985).
Apparent Color COLORLESS LIQUID
Odor FAINT PLEASANT ODOR ; An ethereal odor
Boiling Point 101.1 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
Melting Point 11.80 DEG C
Molecular Weight 88.10
Density 1.0337 AT 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Sensitivity Data Since odor is not irritating, atmospheric concn high enough to produce anesthesia & organ damage may not provoke alarm. EYE, SKIN, & RESP IRRITANT.
Environmental Impact 1,4-Dioxane is used primarily as a solvent in such widely used products as paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics and deodorants. When released to water, 1,4-dioxane is not expected to hydrolyze and may volatilize, although its infinite water solubility precludes estimating the volatilization half-life. Based on its infinite water solubility and low estimated soil sorption partition coefficient, 1,4-dioxane released to soil is expected to leach to groundwater. 1,4-Dioxane is not expected to bioconcentrate in fish or biodegrade in soil or water. 1,4-Dioxane which enters the atmosphere is expected to degrade fairly quickly. After 3.4 hr, 50% of the dioxane mixed with NO and subjected to environmental UV radiation had degraded. A half-life of 6.69 hr was estimated for the reaction of 1,4-dioxane with atmospheric hydroxyl radicals. The expected products of this reaction are aldehydes and ketones. Human exposure is expected to result primarily from contact with products containing 1,4-dioxane.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Using a measured log octanol/water partition coefficient of -0.27 , a log soil-sorption coefficient (Koc) of 1.23 was estimated for 1,4-dioxane(2,SRC). Compounds with a Koc of this magnitude are mobile in soil so 1,4-dioxane may leach to groundwater. Although the infinite water solubility prevents the estimation of a volatilization half-life 1,4-dioxane should volatilize from dry soil based on its moderate vapor pressure (37 mm Hg at 25 deg C ). AQUATIC FATE: No hydrolysis data were available for 1,4-dioxane. Ethers have been classified as generally resistant to hydrolysis , therefore, 1,4-dioxane is not expected to hydrolyze significantly. No volatilization data for 1,4-dioxane were available, and since 1,4-dioxane is infinitely soluble in water, a volatilization half-life cannot be estimated. 1,4-Dioxane has a moderate vapor pressure at 25 deg C (37 mm Hg), therefore, volatilization may be significant. With an estimated Koc of 1.23, 1,4-dioxane is not expected to significantly adsorb on suspended sediments. 1,4-Dioxane exhibited a negligible biological oxygen demand in two activated sludge experiments and the compound has been classified as relatively undegradable. It is expected, therefore, that 1,4-dioxane will not biodegrade extensively in the aquatic environment. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: The half-life of the reaction of 1,4-dioxane with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere was estimated to be 6.69 to 9.6 hr. Experimental results of sunlight irradiated mixtures of dioxane/NO suggest similiar half-lives. The products of the reaction of ethers with hydroxyl radicals are likely to be aldehydes and ketones .
Drinking Water Impact SURFACE WATER: Raw water collected from an unspecified river in the United Kingdom contained 1,4-dioxane, but no quantitative data were presented . 1,4-Dioxane at 1 ug/l was detected in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Channel in the Lake Michigan basin . DRINKING WATER: 1,4-Dioxane at 1 ug/l was detected in United States drinking water . A Massachusetts drinking water well contained 1,4-dioxane at 2100 ppb . GROUNDWATER: 1,4-Dioxane was detected in 37% of the samples of well water collected near a solid waste landfill located 60 miles southwest of Wilmington, DE . No concentrations were presented. Leachates from wells located near low level radioactive waste disposal sites contained 1,4-dioxane, but no quantitative data were presented . EFFL: 1,4-Dioxane was detected at 1 ug/l in effluents from the North Side and Calumet sewage treatment plants on the Lake Michigan basin .

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