|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 8260|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| WETTING & DISPERSING AGENT IN TEXTILE PROCESSING, DYE-BATHS,
STAIN & PRINTING COMPOSITIONS; USED IN CLEANING AND DETERGENT
PREPARATIONS, ADHESIVES, COSMETICS, DEODORANTS, FUMIGANTS,
EMULSIONS & POLISHING COMPOSITIONS
Used in lacquers, paints, varnishes, paint and varnish removers.
Solvent in pulping of wood
In dipping, roller coating, tumbling, knifing, and brushing of natural, and synthetic resin-based
varnishes, lacquers, and paints.
Solvent for fats, oils, waxes, and natural and synthetic resins.
Working fluid for scintillation counter samples.
Used in purification of drugs.
Preparation of tissue sections for histology. Former use
As a solvent in spectroscopic and photometric measurements. Is reliable only in the absence
Used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents, particularly, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and in
1,4-Dioxane is used in cosmetic products, such as shampoos and bath preparations.
|Consumption Patterns|| Approximately 90% of the 1,4-dioxane produced annually is used as a stabilizer for
chlorinated solvents, particularly, 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The remainder of the 1,4-dioxane
production is used in solvent applications (1985).
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQUID
|Odor|| FAINT PLEASANT ODOR ; An ethereal odor
|Boiling Point|| 101.1 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| 11.80 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 88.10
|Density|| 1.0337 AT 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Sensitivity Data|| Since odor is not irritating, atmospheric concn high enough to produce anesthesia &
organ damage may not provoke alarm.
EYE, SKIN, & RESP IRRITANT.
|Environmental Impact|| 1,4-Dioxane is used primarily as a solvent in such widely used products as paints,
varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics and deodorants. When released to water, 1,4-dioxane is not
expected to hydrolyze and may volatilize, although its infinite water solubility precludes
estimating the volatilization half-life. Based on its infinite water solubility and low estimated soil
sorption partition coefficient, 1,4-dioxane released to soil is expected to leach to groundwater.
1,4-Dioxane is not expected to bioconcentrate in fish or biodegrade in soil or water. 1,4-Dioxane
which enters the atmosphere is expected to degrade fairly quickly. After 3.4 hr, 50% of the
dioxane mixed with NO and subjected to environmental UV radiation had degraded. A half-life of
6.69 hr was estimated for the reaction of 1,4-dioxane with atmospheric hydroxyl radicals. The
expected products of this reaction are aldehydes and ketones. Human exposure is expected to
result primarily from contact with products containing 1,4-dioxane.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Using a measured log octanol/water partition coefficient of
-0.27 , a log soil-sorption coefficient (Koc) of 1.23 was estimated for 1,4-dioxane(2,SRC).
Compounds with a Koc of this magnitude are mobile in soil so 1,4-dioxane may leach to
groundwater. Although the infinite water solubility prevents the estimation of a
volatilization half-life 1,4-dioxane should volatilize from dry soil based on its moderate vapor
pressure (37 mm Hg at 25 deg C ).
AQUATIC FATE: No hydrolysis data were available for 1,4-dioxane. Ethers have been classified
as generally resistant to hydrolysis , therefore, 1,4-dioxane is not expected to hydrolyze
significantly. No volatilization data for 1,4-dioxane were available, and since 1,4-dioxane is
infinitely soluble in water, a volatilization half-life cannot be estimated. 1,4-Dioxane has a
moderate vapor pressure at 25 deg C (37 mm Hg), therefore, volatilization may be significant.
With an estimated Koc of 1.23, 1,4-dioxane is not expected to significantly adsorb on suspended
sediments. 1,4-Dioxane exhibited a negligible biological oxygen demand in two activated sludge
experiments and the compound has been classified as relatively undegradable. It is expected,
therefore, that 1,4-dioxane will not biodegrade extensively in the aquatic environment.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: The half-life of the reaction of 1,4-dioxane with photochemically
produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere was estimated to be 6.69 to 9.6 hr. Experimental
results of sunlight irradiated mixtures of dioxane/NO suggest similiar half-lives. The products of
the reaction of ethers with hydroxyl radicals are likely to be aldehydes and ketones .
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: Raw water collected from an unspecified river in the United
Kingdom contained 1,4-dioxane, but no quantitative data were presented . 1,4-Dioxane at 1
ug/l was detected in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Channel in the Lake Michigan basin .
DRINKING WATER: 1,4-Dioxane at 1 ug/l was detected in United States drinking water . A
Massachusetts drinking water well contained 1,4-dioxane at 2100 ppb .
GROUNDWATER: 1,4-Dioxane was detected in 37% of the samples of well water collected near
a solid waste landfill located 60 miles southwest of Wilmington, DE . No concentrations were
presented. Leachates from wells located near low level radioactive waste disposal sites contained
1,4-dioxane, but no quantitative data were presented .
EFFL: 1,4-Dioxane was detected at 1 ug/l in effluents from the North Side and Calumet sewage
treatment plants on the Lake Michigan basin .