|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate||1-Propanol, 2,3-dibromo-, phosphate
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| SRP: FORMER USES: IT HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN
PHENOLIC RESINS, PAINTS, PAPER COATINGS AND RUBBER.
TRIS(2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE IS USED MAINLY IN POLYESTER AND
CELLULOSIC ACETATE FABRICS, BUT IT HAS ALSO BEEN USED IN ACRYLIC
FABRICS. IT MAY BE ADDED TO TEXTILES BY THE PRODUCER, ALTHOUGH
ADDN BY DYERS AND FINISHERS IS BELIEVED TO BE MORE USUAL, AT A LEVEL
OF 6-10% BY WT. ITS ADDN TO POLYURETHANE FOAMS IS THE MAJOR USE IN
PLASTICS; RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNTS ARE BELIEVED TO BE USED AS AN
ADDITIVE TO POLYSTYRENE FOAM. RIGID FOAMS CONTAINING
TRIS(2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE ARE USED IN INSULATION, FURNITURE,
AUTOMOBILE INTERIOR PARTS AND WATER FLOATATION DEVICES.
Highly active flame retardant used in clear cast acrylic sheet, lacquers, styrene-butadiene rubber
(SBR), latexes, and cured unsaturated polyesters.
tris(2,3-dibromo-1-propyl) phosphate (TRIS) is no longer used in the United States. Major uses
for TRIS were in plastics and flame retardant additive used in children's nightwear. Other
applications included the treatment of packaging, draperies, institutional bedding, toys, doll
clothing, and wigs.
|Apparent Color|| VISCOUS, PALE YELLOW LIQUID; Dense, nearly colorless liquid
|Melting Point|| FP: 5.5 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 697.93
|Density|| 2.27 AT 25 DEG C
|Environmental Impact|| Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TRIS) is not currently produced or used in the
United States but was used as a flame retardant in plastics and synthetic fibers. Environmental
release in the past has been shown to result from textile finishing plants and laundering of the
finished product. Based on the high estimated soil sorption coefficient, TRIS is expected to leach
only slowly to groundwater when released to soil. Since TRIS possesses six bromine atoms,
hydrolysis is expected to occur at the alkyl bromide position at a significant rate upon release to
water and soil especially under basic conditions. Volatilization from water may also occur.
Biodegradation of TRIS occurs in activated sludge, but no data were available regarding
biodegradation in natural soils and waters. Photolysis of TRIS in soil and water is not expected to
be important. Because of its low vapor pressure, TRIS is expected to be mostly sorbed to
particulate matter in air and removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling. The estimated
half-life for the reaction of vapor phase TRIS with atmospheric photochemically generated
hydroxyl radicals is 3.74 days. Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate has been detected but not
quanitified in soil and air particulate matter collected in Arkansas.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: An estimated log Koc (3.29) suggests strong adsorption to
soil . Based on this Koc value and the low measured water solubility of the technical chemical
(8.0 mg/l, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TRIS) is expected to leach only slowly to
groundwater. The water solubility of pure TRIS may be lower than the solubility of the
technical grade chemical and so the extent of leaching of the pure chemical may be even lower
than the Koc above suggests. No data on the biodegradation or photolysis of TRIS in the
soil were available.
AQUATIC FATE: A biodegradation half-life of 19.7 hours was obtained for
tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TRIS) in a laboratory activated sludge system at 21 deg C.
No data concerning the biodegradation of TRIS in natural waters were available. Phosphoric acid
methyl and ethyl esters slowly hydrolyze at pH 7 and 25 deg C . The longer alkyl group of
tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate would be expected to impart an even longer half-life to
TRIS. Although hydrolysis of the phosphate ester is not expected to be significant,
hydrolysis involving the bromide atoms on the propyl groups may occur, especially under basic
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Because of its low vapor pressure tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
(TRIS) is expected to be mostly sorbed to particulate matter in the atmosphere and therefore
would be susceptible to removal by gravitational settling. An atmospheric half-life of 3.74 days
has been estimated for the reaction of the vapor phase (TRIS) with hydroxyl radicals. No data on
the photolysis of TRIS were available. Direct photolysis is not expected to be a major fate process
since TRIS should not absorb sunlight.