|Consumption Patterns|| The consumption pattern in the USA in 1974 is est to have been as follows: Textile and
dry cleaning industries, 69%; Metal cleaning, 16%; Chemical intermediate (eg, prepn of
trichloroacetic acid in some fluorocarbons), 12%; Miscellaneous uses, 3%.
Demand: (1982), 545 million lb; (1983), 679 million lb; (1987), 625 million lb
(1974) Dry cleaning & textile processing, 59%; Industrial metal cleaning, 21%; Exports, 11%;
Chemical intermed (mostly fluorocarbons), 6%; Other, 3%.
SOLVENT IN DRY CLEANING, 46%; DEGREASING SOLVENT, 21%; CHEM INTERMED
FOR FLUOROCARBONS, 12%; AGENT IN TEXTILE MFR, 7%; COMPONENT OF
AEROSOL PRODUCTS, 2%; OTHER, 12% (1980, EST)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Perchloroethylene. Demand: 1988: 495 million lb; 1989: 495 million lb;
1993 projected/: 495 million lb. (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 121 million lb
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Perchloroethylene. Dry cleaning and textile processing, 50%; chemical
intermediate (mostly fluorocarbon F-113), 28%; industrial metal cleaning, 9%; exports, 10%;
|Drinking Water Impact|| Samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds were collected from 315 wells in the
Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in southwestern New Jersey and a small adjacent area
in Pennsylvania (USA) during 1980-1982. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all 3
aquifer units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Most of the contamination
appeared to be confined to the outcrop area. Low levels of contamination were found downdip of
the outcrop area in the upper and middle aquifer. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and
benzene were the most frequently detected compounds. Differences in the distributions of light
chlorinated hydrocarbons, (including tetrachloroethylene)/, trichloroethylene, and aromatic
hydrocarbons, ie, benzene, were noted and were probably due to differences in the uses of the
compounds and the distribution patterns of potential contamination sources. The distribution
patterns of volatile organic compounds differed greatly among the 3 aquifer units. The upper
aquifer, which cropped out mostly in less-developed areas, had the lowest percentage of wells
with volatile organic compounds detected (10% of wells sampled). The concentrations in most
wells in the upper aquifer which had detectable levels were <10 ug/l. In the middle aquifer, which
cropped out beneath much of the urban and industrial area adjacent to the Delaware River,
detectable levels of volatile organic compounds were found in 22% of wells sampled, and several
wells contained concentrations >100 ug/l. The lower aquifer, which was confined beneath much
of the outcrop area of the aquifer system, had the highest percentage of wells (28%) with
detectable levels. This was probably due to vertical leakage of contamination from the middle
aquifer and the high percentage of wells tapping the lower aquifer in the most heavily developed
areas of the outcrop.
The National Health Department (Italy) had promoted and supported a preliminary survey on the
presence of some chlorinated organic compounds in the drinking water. The drinking water of
some cities of northern Italy was analyzed for the presence of trichloroethylene,
tetrachloroethylene, methylchloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trihalomethanes, polychlorinated
biphenyls, and the most common chlorinated pesticides. From March, 1981 to June, 1982, 8
controls were done for 11 sampling points. All water underwent different treatments with carbon.
In the raw water, trichloroethylene (47/48) and tetrachloroethylene (34/48) showed the highest
frequency of positivity. One well had the highest concentrations of these compounds
(trichloroethylene 81-158 ug/l; tetrachloroethylene 15-32 ug/l). In the finished waters, carbon
trichloride the most abundant trihalomethane formed during chlorination, was detected in 80% of
the 39 samples, against 31% in the 48 raw water samples. No polychlorinated biphenyls and
chlorinated pesticides were found at the chosen detection limit (0.05 ug/l).
DRINKING WATER: 180 USA cities with finished surface water - 0.3 ppb median, 21 ppb max;
36 US cities with finished groundwater - 3.0 ppb median; roughly 25% of the samples were
positive . Contaminated wells had much higher concentrations (a maximum of 1.5 ppm)(2,3).
30 Canadian potable water treatment facilities (treated water) 1 ppb avg, 2 ppb max ; 230
Groundwater public drinking water sources in the Netherlands: 64 are >10 ppb, 12 are >100 ppb,
4 are >1 ppm and 2 are >100 ppm . Federal survey of finished waters in USA:
Tetrachloroethylene occurred in 26.1% of groundwater supplies, max concentrate in groundwater
and surface water supplies 1500 and 21 ppb, respectively(6).
DRINKING WATER: Maximum concentration in tapwater from bank filtered Rhine water in the
Netherlands 50 parts per trillion . Old Love Canal, Niagara Falls, NY (9 homes) 350-2900 parts
per trillion, 470 parts per trillion median . USA surveys: State data, 1569 samples, 14% pos,
trace to 3000 ppb, National Organics Monitoring Survey (NOMS, initiated in 1975), 113 samples,
42.4% pos, 0.2-3.1 ppb, National Screening Program (NSP, 1977-1981), 142 samples, 16.9%
pos, trace to 3.2 ppb, Community Water Supply Survey (CWSS, 1978), 452 samples, 4.9% pos,
0.5-30 ppb, Ground Water Supply Survey (GWS, 1982, finished drinking water), 466 samples
selected at random from 1000 in survey, 7.3% pos, 0.5 ppb median, 23 ppb max .
GROUNDWATER: 27 USA cities, 0.6 ppb median (range 0.1-2 ppb) San Fernando Valley,
CA (1981-1983) - 17 of 106 wells exceeded 4 ppb, max 130 ppb . 10 British groundwaters:
Equal or <2 ppb in 8 waters and higher levels at 2 sites where the aquifer was grossly polluted .
Groundwater underlying 2 rapid infiltration sites 0.07 and 0.63 ppb . Japan, national
groundwater survey, 1982, 1,083 shallow wells (most for domestic uses other than drinking water
in private homes), 27% pos, 0.2-23,000 ppb, 277 deep wells (public, industrial, and commercial
supplies), 30% pos, 0.2-150 ppb .
SURFACE WATER: 154 USA cities - 2.0 ppb median, 13.6% positive . Ohio R (1980-81, 11
stations, 4972 samples) - 49% positive, 340 basins in USA (204 sites)-77 sites above 1 ppb, 1 site
above 11 ppb . Lake Ontario (95 stations) 9 parts per trillion mean standard deviation 65 parts
per trillion . Rhine R, km 865 (1976-1982) 0.12-0.62 ppb with lower concentrations after
1978 . Surface of Lake Zurich - 25-140 parts per trillion, greater concentrations below the
surface(5,6). STORET Database, 9,323 data points, 38.0% pos, 0.100 ppb median(7).
SEAWATER: 0.1 to 0.8 parts per trillion(1,2). May be several orders of magnitude higher (10
ppb) near source, but concentration diminishes rapidly away from source . Gulf of Mexico
(open and coastal) 0-40 parts per trillion where there is anthropogenic influence and <1 parts per
trillion in unpolluted areas . Surface seawater Eastern Pacific Ocean 1981 (0-10 m depth), 30
samples, 90% pos, range of pos, 0.1-2.8 parts per trillion, avg of all data, 0.7 parts per trillion .
RAIN/SNOW: West Los Angeles (3/26/82) - 21 parts per trillion . Industrial city in England -
150 parts per trillion . La Jolla, California - 5.7 parts per trillion . Central and Southern
California - 1.4 and 2.3 parts per trillion resp .
EFFL: Industrial 1-20 ppb; Municipal treatment plants 1-10 ppb ; Baltimore Municipal
Treatment Plant 8-129 ppb (higher levels in winter) . Industries in which mean or maximum
levels in raw wastewater exceeded 1 ppm are (number of samples, percent pos, mean, max, ppm):
raw wastewater: auto and other laundries (28 samples, 71.4% pos, <8.4 ppm mean, 93 ppm max),
aluminum forming (4, 100%, <2.6, <4.0), metal finishing (96, 42.7%, 4.5, 110), organic
chemical/plastics manufacturing (number of samples not reported, 19 pos, 5.1 mean, max concn
not reported), and paint and ink formulation (36, 55.6%, 0.95, 4.9); treated wastewater: auto and
other laundries (5 samples, 80% pos, 0.58 ppm mean, 1.0 ppm max), aluminum forming (16,
87.5%, <0.24, 3.0), metal finishing (not reported), organic chemical/plastics manufacturing
(number of samples not reported, 14 pos, 0.047 mean, max concn not reported), and paint and ink
formulation (24, 33.3%, 0.19, 0.70) . Industrial effluent, STORET Database, 1,390 data points,
10.1% pos, 5.0 ppb median .