|Environmental Impact|| Pyrene's release to the environment is ubiquitous since it is a ubiquitous product of
incomplete combustion. It is largely associated with particulate matter, soils and sediments.
Although environmental concentrations are highest near sources, its presence in places distant
from primary sources indicates that it is reasonably stable in the atmosphere and capable of long
distance transport. When released to air it may be subject to direct photolysis, although
adsorption to particulates apparently can retard this process. Half-lives for reaction of vapor
phase pyrene with atmospheric pollutants are: O3, 0.67 days, NO2, 14 days; estimated half-life for
reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is 1.12 days. If released to water, it will
adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter, bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms
slightly to moderately, but will not hydrolyze. It may be subject to significant biodegradation, and
direct photolysis may be important near the surface of waters. Evaporation may be important with
a half-life of 4.8 to 39.2 days predicted for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec
with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec; half-life for evaporation from a model pond was 1176 days.
Adsorption to sediments and particulates will limit evaporation. If released to soil it will be
expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not be expected to appreciably leach to the
groundwater, although its presence in groundwater illustrates that it can be transported there. It
will not be expected to hydrolyze or significantly evaporate from soils and surfaces. It may be
subject to appreciable biodegradation in soils. Human exposure will be from inhalation of
contaminated air and consumption of contaminated food and water. Especially high exposure will
occur through the smoking of cigarettes and the ingestion of certain foods (eg, smoked and
charcoal-broiled meats and fish).
|Drinking Water Impact|| PYRENE WAS ONE OF THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS
(PAH) DETERMINED IN SAMPLES FROM BEKKELAGET SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT IN OSLO RECEIVING INDUST WASTE WATER & HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE:
DURING DRY PERIOD IN 1979 (189 NG/L); AFTER RAINFALL 1979 (168 NG/L); DRY
PERIOD (SPRING) 1980 (248 NG/L); AFTER RAINFALL (SUMMER) 1980 (110 NG/L).
STATIONARY MUSSELS OUTSIDE TREATMENT PLANT CONTAINED 90 NG/G DEC 8;
99 NG/G DEC 11; 82 NG/G DEC 15; 101 NG/G DEC 22; 132 NG/G JAN 6; & 80 NG/G
APRIL 28; TRANSPLANTED MUSSELS OUTSIDE BEKKELAGET SEWAGE
TREATMENT PLANT 16 NG/G DEC 11; 51 NG/G DEC 22; 40 NG/G JAN 6; 50 NG/G
APRIL 28. FROM THE PAH-PROFILES OBSERVED IN MUSSELS NEAR THE
DISCHARGE-POINT, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
IS MAJOR PAH-SOURCE IN THE AREA. FIVE SAMPLES OF NORDIC TAP WATER
WERE ANALYZED FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
CONCENTRATIONS OF PYRENE FOUND WERE 12 NG/L, 8.5 NG/L, 0.31 NG/L, LESS
THAN 0.30 NG/L, & LESS THAN 0.72 NG/L, RESPECTIVELY.
DRINKING WATER: Norway, 1.1 ppt . Eastern Ontario, Canada, 5 municipal plants,
June-October, 1978, 0.04-2.0 ppb, avg 0.6 ppb, raw water, avg 1.0 ppb . Great Lakes area, 12
systems, 1980, Jan, 1.3-72.0 ppt, July-Aug, not detected - 31.0 ppt .
GROUNDWATER: 1.6-2.5 ppt .
SURFACE WATER: Eastern Ontario, raw waters, June-Oct, 1978, 0.2-1.7 ppt . River water,
< 0.001 ppm . Storet Database, 904 samples, 4.0% pos, avg < 10 ppb .
RAINWATER: Rainwater, 5.8-27.8 ppt .
EFFL: DATA ON EMISSION LEVELS OF WASTEWATERS & SOLID RESIDUALS
FROM PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY ARE SUMMARIZED. TYPES OF WASTE
WATER & RESIDUAL SAMPLES FOR WHICH DATA ARE PRESENTED INCL RAW
WASTE LOADINGS FROM CLASS A THROUGH E REFINERIES, LOADING OF
VARIOUS POLLUTANTS ACROSS SEVERAL PROCESS UNITS SUCH AS DISSOLVED
AIR FLOTATION, ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS, CARBON COLUMNS (POWDERED
& GRANULAR), & CLARIFIERS, & OILY SOLIDS (TANK BOTTOMS, CRUDE OIL,
BUNKER C, & WAXY PRODUCT). PYRENE CONCN RANGES FOUND IN REFINERY
CATEGORY B, C, E, & AN UNDESIGNATED CATEGORY (BIOTREATMENT EFFLUENT
< 0.1 TO 30 UG/L, 3 UG/L, 0.7 TO 16 UG/L, & 5.4 UG/L: FINAL EFFLUENT < 1 TO 7
UG/L, < 0.5 UG/L, < 1 UG/L, & < 0.1 UG/L) RESPECTIVELY.
STORET database, 1,271 samples, 5.2% positive, < 10 ppb . US National Urban Runoff
Program, 15 cities, 40% positive, 86 samples, 11% positive, 0.3-10 ppb . Estimated emmissions
from mobile sources, 1979, 950 metric tons . Domestic effluent, 1.8 ppb; sewage: high
percentage industry, 2.56-3.12 ppb, dry weather, 0.25 ppb, heavy rain, 16.1 ppb . 1964:
automobile, 47.5 ug/km travelled, truck 275.0 ug/km; petroleum cracking, 245 ug/cu m;
municipal incineration, 17.6 ug/km open burning of municipal refuse, 1762 ug/kg . Tire
manufacturing plant wastewater, 10 ppb(6).