SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 129000
CASRN 129-00-0
SynonymsPyrene
Benzo[def]phenanthrene
Analytical Methods EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 610
EPA Method 8100
EPA Method 8270
EPA Method 8310
Molecular FormulaC16H10

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use Biochemical research No known use Pyrene from coal-tar has been used as a starting material for the synthesis of benzo(a)pyrene.
Apparent Color MONOCLINIC PRISMATIC TABLETS FROM ALCOHOL OR BY SUBLIMATION; PURE PYRENE IS COLORLESS; PALE YELLOW PLATES (WHEN RECRYSTALLIZED FROM TOLUENE); Colorless solid (tetracene impuritites give yellow color)
Boiling Point 393 deg C at 760 mm Hg; 260 deg C at 60 mm Hg
Melting Point 156 DEG C
Molecular Weight 202.26
Density 1.271 AT 23 DEG C
Sensitivity Data A skin irritant.
Environmental Impact Pyrene's release to the environment is ubiquitous since it is a ubiquitous product of incomplete combustion. It is largely associated with particulate matter, soils and sediments. Although environmental concentrations are highest near sources, its presence in places distant from primary sources indicates that it is reasonably stable in the atmosphere and capable of long distance transport. When released to air it may be subject to direct photolysis, although adsorption to particulates apparently can retard this process. Half-lives for reaction of vapor phase pyrene with atmospheric pollutants are: O3, 0.67 days, NO2, 14 days; estimated half-life for reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is 1.12 days. If released to water, it will adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter, bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms slightly to moderately, but will not hydrolyze. It may be subject to significant biodegradation, and direct photolysis may be important near the surface of waters. Evaporation may be important with a half-life of 4.8 to 39.2 days predicted for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec; half-life for evaporation from a model pond was 1176 days. Adsorption to sediments and particulates will limit evaporation. If released to soil it will be expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not be expected to appreciably leach to the groundwater, although its presence in groundwater illustrates that it can be transported there. It will not be expected to hydrolyze or significantly evaporate from soils and surfaces. It may be subject to appreciable biodegradation in soils. Human exposure will be from inhalation of contaminated air and consumption of contaminated food and water. Especially high exposure will occur through the smoking of cigarettes and the ingestion of certain foods (eg, smoked and charcoal-broiled meats and fish).
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If pyrene is released to soil, it will be expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not be expected to leach to the groundwater. Although no information concerning biodegradation in soil was located, pyrene has been shown to be metabolized in laboratory tests by microorganisms isolated from soils and natural waters. This suggests that it may also be degraded in the soil. It will not hydrolyze and evaporation from soils and surfaces will not be expected to be significant. AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, pyrene will be expected to adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter. It will not hydrolyze but may undergo slight to moderate bioconcentration. It may be subject to significant biodegradation in the water column. A near the surface half-life for direct photolysis in water of 0.68 hours suggests that photodegradation may be a significant removal process in the water column. Evaporation may be significant in certain waters with estimated half-lives ranging from 4.8 to 39.2 days for evaporation of pyrene from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec(1,SRC); the reported half-life for evaporation from a model pond is 1176 days , suggesting that evaporation from such bodies of water may not be significant. It is expected that adsorption to sediments and particulates will limit evaporation. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Pyrene released to the atmosphere will likely be associated with particulate matter and may be subject to long distance transport, depending mainly on the particle size distribution and climatic conditions which will determine the rates of wet and dry deposition. Its presence in areas remote from primary sources demonstrates the potential for this long range transport as well as pyrene's considerable stability in the air. It may be subject to direct photooxidation but evidence suggests that this process is retarded by the material being in the adsorbed state. In the vapor phase pyrene will be subject to reaction with various atmospheric pollutants with reported half-lives of 0.67 days for O3 and 14 days for NO2 . The estimated half-life for reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is 1.12 days(2,SRC).
Drinking Water Impact PYRENE WAS ONE OF THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) DETERMINED IN SAMPLES FROM BEKKELAGET SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN OSLO RECEIVING INDUST WASTE WATER & HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE: DURING DRY PERIOD IN 1979 (189 NG/L); AFTER RAINFALL 1979 (168 NG/L); DRY PERIOD (SPRING) 1980 (248 NG/L); AFTER RAINFALL (SUMMER) 1980 (110 NG/L). STATIONARY MUSSELS OUTSIDE TREATMENT PLANT CONTAINED 90 NG/G DEC 8; 99 NG/G DEC 11; 82 NG/G DEC 15; 101 NG/G DEC 22; 132 NG/G JAN 6; & 80 NG/G APRIL 28; TRANSPLANTED MUSSELS OUTSIDE BEKKELAGET SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT 16 NG/G DEC 11; 51 NG/G DEC 22; 40 NG/G JAN 6; 50 NG/G APRIL 28. FROM THE PAH-PROFILES OBSERVED IN MUSSELS NEAR THE DISCHARGE-POINT, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IS MAJOR PAH-SOURCE IN THE AREA. FIVE SAMPLES OF NORDIC TAP WATER WERE ANALYZED FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. CONCENTRATIONS OF PYRENE FOUND WERE 12 NG/L, 8.5 NG/L, 0.31 NG/L, LESS THAN 0.30 NG/L, & LESS THAN 0.72 NG/L, RESPECTIVELY. DRINKING WATER: Norway, 1.1 ppt . Eastern Ontario, Canada, 5 municipal plants, June-October, 1978, 0.04-2.0 ppb, avg 0.6 ppb, raw water, avg 1.0 ppb . Great Lakes area, 12 systems, 1980, Jan, 1.3-72.0 ppt, July-Aug, not detected - 31.0 ppt . GROUNDWATER: 1.6-2.5 ppt . SURFACE WATER: Eastern Ontario, raw waters, June-Oct, 1978, 0.2-1.7 ppt . River water, < 0.001 ppm . Storet Database, 904 samples, 4.0% pos, avg < 10 ppb . RAINWATER: Rainwater, 5.8-27.8 ppt . EFFL: DATA ON EMISSION LEVELS OF WASTEWATERS & SOLID RESIDUALS FROM PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY ARE SUMMARIZED. TYPES OF WASTE WATER & RESIDUAL SAMPLES FOR WHICH DATA ARE PRESENTED INCL RAW WASTE LOADINGS FROM CLASS A THROUGH E REFINERIES, LOADING OF VARIOUS POLLUTANTS ACROSS SEVERAL PROCESS UNITS SUCH AS DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION, ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS, CARBON COLUMNS (POWDERED & GRANULAR), & CLARIFIERS, & OILY SOLIDS (TANK BOTTOMS, CRUDE OIL, BUNKER C, & WAXY PRODUCT). PYRENE CONCN RANGES FOUND IN REFINERY CATEGORY B, C, E, & AN UNDESIGNATED CATEGORY (BIOTREATMENT EFFLUENT < 0.1 TO 30 UG/L, 3 UG/L, 0.7 TO 16 UG/L, & 5.4 UG/L: FINAL EFFLUENT < 1 TO 7 UG/L, < 0.5 UG/L, < 1 UG/L, & < 0.1 UG/L) RESPECTIVELY. STORET database, 1,271 samples, 5.2% positive, < 10 ppb . US National Urban Runoff Program, 15 cities, 40% positive, 86 samples, 11% positive, 0.3-10 ppb . Estimated emmissions from mobile sources, 1979, 950 metric tons . Domestic effluent, 1.8 ppb; sewage: high percentage industry, 2.56-3.12 ppb, dry weather, 0.25 ppb, heavy rain, 16.1 ppb . 1964: automobile, 47.5 ug/km travelled, truck 275.0 ug/km; petroleum cracking, 245 ug/cu m; municipal incineration, 17.6 ug/km open burning of municipal refuse, 1762 ug/kg . Tire manufacturing plant wastewater, 10 ppb(6).

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