SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 143500
CASRN 143-50-0
SynonymsKepone
1,3,4-Metheno-2H-cyclobuta(cd)pentalen-2-one, 1,1a,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-decachlorooctahydro-
Decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclo-buta(c,d)-pentalen-2-one
Chlordecone
Analytical Method EPA Method 8081
Molecular FormulaC10Cl10O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use INSECTICIDE FOR BANANAS, NON-BEARING CITRUS TREES (FORMER USE), TOBACCO (FORMER USE), ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS, INSECTS IN BUILDINGS (FORMER USE), LAWNS, TURF, & FLOWERS (FORMER USE), INDOOR & OUTDOOR AREAS (FORMER USE) Base material for the manufacture of kelevan. NORMALLY USED AS MONO- TO TRI-HYDRATE. IT IS EFFECTIVE AGAINST LEAF-EATING INSECTS, LESS EFFECTIVE AGAINST SUCKING INSECTS, & USEFUL AS LARVICIDE AGAINST FLIES. FORMER USE Acaricide (former use) As a fungicide against apple scab and powdery mildew former use and to control the colorado potato beetle, rust mite on non-bearing citrus, and potato and tobacco wereworm on gladisli and other plants. Kepone was formerly registered for the control of rootborers on bananas with a residue tolerance of 0.01 ppm. This constituted the only food or feed use of Kepone. Nonfood uses included wireworm control in tobacco fields and bait to control ants and other insects in indoor and outdoor areas. /CHLORDECONE IS REPORTED TO HAVE FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST APPLE SCAB AND POWDERY MILDEW. FORMER USE Kepone is used as stomach poisons in the form of bait, and it controls slugs, snails, and fire ants.
Apparent Color CRYSTALS; TAN-TO-WHITE SOLID
Odor Odorless
Melting Point 350 deg C (decomp)
Molecular Weight 490.68
Sensitivity Data Irritation of eyes, nose, and throat.
Environmental Impact Chlordecone release to the environment has occurred as a result of its manufacture and use as an insecticide and as a degradation product of the insecticide Mirex. Chlordecone released to soil will be expected to adsorb to the soil; However, some leaching to the groundwater may occur, especially in sandy soils and other soils with low organic content. Biodegradation and hydrolysis will not be important fate processes but some evaporation may be observed from the surface of the soil. Chlordecone released to the water will be expected to adsorb to the sediment and to bioconcentrate in fish but may not bioconcentrate in crustaceans or other aquatic organisms. It will not be expected to hydrolyze, or biodegrade, and direct photogradation is not expected to be significant compared to other processes. Evaporation from water also should not be significant, with a half-life of 3.8-46 years predicted for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. Chlordecone released to the atmosphere will not be expected to react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals or ozone and will not be subject to appreciable direct photodegradation. Chlordecone should be sorbed to particulate matter in the atmosphere and thus subject to gravitational settling. Exposure to chlordecone will occur mainly through the consumption of contaminated foods, especially contaminated fish and seafood. Exposure may also occur in countries may no longer appropriate.
Environmental Fate KEPONE IS VERY STABLE IN ENVIRONMENT. NO DEGRADATION PRODUCTS HAVE BEEN REPORTED, ALTHOUGH ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION PRODUCED DECHLORINATED PRODUCTS IN LAB STUDY. PHOTOPRODUCTS OF KEPONE EXAM BY (13)CARBON & NMR. THEY WERE 1,1A,3,3A,4,5,5, 5A,5B-NONACHLOROOCTAHYDRO-1,3,4-METHENO-2H-CYCLOBUTA(CD)PENTALEN-2-ONE AND 1,1A,3,3A,4,5,5,5A-OCTACHLORO OCTAHYDRO-1,3,4-METHENO-2H-CYCLOBUTA(CD)PENTALEN- 2-ONE. TERRESTRIAL FATE: If chlordecone is released to soil, it will be expected to adsorb to soils; However, some leaching to groundwater may occur, especially in sandy soils and other soils with low organic content. Biodegradation and hydrolysis will not be important fate processes but some evaporation may be observed from the surface of the soil. AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, chlordecone will be expected to adsorb to the sediment. It will be expected to bioconcentrate in fish but has been shown to not bioconcentrate in certain crustaceans. It will not be expected to hydrolyze, biodegrade, or appreciably evaporate. (A half-life of 3.8-46 years has been predicted for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec.) No data were found concerning the photodegradation of chlordecone irradiated at environmentally significant wavelengths. No significant direct photodegradation is expected. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If chlordecone is released to the air, it will not be expected to directly photodegrade or to react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals or ozone. However, chlordecone should absorb to particulate matter and be subject to gravitational settling. Aquatic Fate: Low concentrations of chlordecone can cause reductions in both algal growth and invertebrate populations, thereby affecting productivity at other trophic levels. Aquatic fate: Chlordecone and mirex are among the most stable pesticides in the aquatic environment. After 56 days of incubation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, there was no evidence of degradation of these two cmpd.
Drinking Water Impact SURFACE WATER: Concentration of kepone residues in water collected from the James River estuary in 1976-78 ranged from 0 to 1.20 ppb. The majority of water samples collected showed no detectable residues. Water column residues varied according to seasonal and spatial differences. Levels peaked during the summer months and averaged higher in the middle reach of the estuary. Residues in the water were 1-5 orders of magnitude lower than reported residues in James River bed sediments. DRINKING WATER: Hopewell, VA where chlordecone was manufactured - detected, not quantified . SURFACE WATER: James River, VA: 1979, 20-65 km from mouth, 1-10 parts per trillion, avg 6 parts per trillion chlordecone ; During dredging operation, July 15 1976, seven stations, 71% pos, concn showed wide variation at different sampling times, surface, 1 sample, 77 parts per trillion, 1.5-6 m depth, 8 samples, 63% pos, 46-579 ppt, avg of pos, 500 parts per trillion ; Centrifuged and filtered sediment supernatent, 902 ppm, surface water, 897 ppm . Chesapeake Bay, July, 1976, 0.04-0.08 ppm . Lake Ontario, Lake St. Clair, identified, not quantified, Lake Erie, not detected . EFFL: Hopewell, VA: sludge near town's sewage treatment plant, 200-600 ppm chlordecone, wastewater at sewage treatment plant, 0.1-10 ppm .

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