|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 8081|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| INSECTICIDE FOR BANANAS, NON-BEARING CITRUS TREES (FORMER USE),
TOBACCO (FORMER USE), ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS, INSECTS IN BUILDINGS
(FORMER USE), LAWNS, TURF, & FLOWERS (FORMER USE), INDOOR & OUTDOOR
AREAS (FORMER USE)
Base material for the manufacture of kelevan.
NORMALLY USED AS MONO- TO TRI-HYDRATE. IT IS EFFECTIVE AGAINST
LEAF-EATING INSECTS, LESS EFFECTIVE AGAINST SUCKING INSECTS, & USEFUL
AS LARVICIDE AGAINST FLIES. FORMER USE
Acaricide (former use)
As a fungicide against apple scab and powdery mildew former use and to control the
colorado potato beetle, rust mite on non-bearing citrus, and potato and tobacco wereworm on
gladisli and other plants.
Kepone was formerly registered for the control of rootborers on bananas with a residue
tolerance of 0.01 ppm. This constituted the only food or feed use of Kepone. Nonfood uses
included wireworm control in tobacco fields and bait to control ants and other insects in indoor
and outdoor areas.
/CHLORDECONE IS REPORTED TO HAVE FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST APPLE
SCAB AND POWDERY MILDEW. FORMER USE
Kepone is used as stomach poisons in the form of bait, and it controls slugs, snails,
and fire ants.
|Apparent Color|| CRYSTALS; TAN-TO-WHITE SOLID
|Melting Point|| 350 deg C (decomp)
|Molecular Weight|| 490.68
|Sensitivity Data|| Irritation of eyes, nose, and throat.
|Environmental Impact|| Chlordecone release to the environment has occurred as a result of its manufacture and
use as an insecticide and as a degradation product of the insecticide Mirex. Chlordecone released
to soil will be expected to adsorb to the soil; However, some leaching to the groundwater may
occur, especially in sandy soils and other soils with low organic content. Biodegradation and
hydrolysis will not be important fate processes but some evaporation may be observed from the
surface of the soil. Chlordecone released to the water will be expected to adsorb to the sediment
and to bioconcentrate in fish but may not bioconcentrate in crustaceans or other aquatic
organisms. It will not be expected to hydrolyze, or biodegrade, and direct photogradation is not
expected to be significant compared to other processes. Evaporation from water also should not
be significant, with a half-life of 3.8-46 years predicted for evaporation from a river 1 m deep,
flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. Chlordecone released to the atmosphere will
not be expected to react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals or ozone and will not
be subject to appreciable direct photodegradation. Chlordecone should be sorbed to particulate
matter in the atmosphere and thus subject to gravitational settling. Exposure to chlordecone will
occur mainly through the consumption of contaminated foods, especially contaminated fish and
seafood. Exposure may also occur in countries may no longer appropriate.
|Environmental Fate|| KEPONE IS VERY STABLE IN ENVIRONMENT. NO DEGRADATION
PRODUCTS HAVE BEEN REPORTED, ALTHOUGH ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION
PRODUCED DECHLORINATED PRODUCTS IN LAB STUDY.
PHOTOPRODUCTS OF KEPONE EXAM BY (13)CARBON & NMR. THEY WERE
5A,5B-NONACHLOROOCTAHYDRO-1,3,4-METHENO-2H-CYCLOBUTA(CD)PENTALEN-2-ONE AND 1,1A,3,3A,4,5,5,5A-OCTACHLORO
TERRESTRIAL FATE: If chlordecone is released to soil, it will be expected to adsorb to soils;
However, some leaching to groundwater may occur, especially in sandy soils and other soils with
low organic content. Biodegradation and hydrolysis will not be important fate processes but some
evaporation may be observed from the surface of the soil.
AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, chlordecone will be expected to adsorb to the sediment.
It will be expected to bioconcentrate in fish but has been shown to not bioconcentrate in certain
crustaceans. It will not be expected to hydrolyze, biodegrade, or appreciably evaporate. (A
half-life of 3.8-46 years has been predicted for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1
m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec.) No data were found concerning the photodegradation of
chlordecone irradiated at environmentally significant wavelengths. No significant direct
photodegradation is expected.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If chlordecone is released to the air, it will not be expected to directly
photodegrade or to react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals or ozone. However,
chlordecone should absorb to particulate matter and be subject to gravitational settling.
Aquatic Fate: Low concentrations of chlordecone can cause reductions in both algal growth
and invertebrate populations, thereby affecting productivity at other trophic levels.
Aquatic fate: Chlordecone and mirex are among the most stable pesticides in the aquatic
environment. After 56 days of incubation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, there was
no evidence of degradation of these two cmpd.
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: Concentration of kepone residues in water collected from the
James River estuary in 1976-78 ranged from 0 to 1.20 ppb. The majority of water samples
collected showed no detectable residues. Water column residues varied according to seasonal and
spatial differences. Levels peaked during the summer months and averaged higher in the middle
reach of the estuary. Residues in the water were 1-5 orders of magnitude lower than reported
residues in James River bed sediments.
DRINKING WATER: Hopewell, VA where chlordecone was manufactured - detected, not
SURFACE WATER: James River, VA: 1979, 20-65 km from mouth, 1-10 parts per trillion, avg
6 parts per trillion chlordecone ; During dredging operation, July 15 1976, seven stations, 71%
pos, concn showed wide variation at different sampling times, surface, 1 sample, 77 parts per
trillion, 1.5-6 m depth, 8 samples, 63% pos, 46-579 ppt, avg of pos, 500 parts per trillion ;
Centrifuged and filtered sediment supernatent, 902 ppm, surface water, 897 ppm . Chesapeake
Bay, July, 1976, 0.04-0.08 ppm . Lake Ontario, Lake St. Clair, identified, not quantified, Lake
Erie, not detected .
EFFL: Hopewell, VA: sludge near town's sewage treatment plant, 200-600 ppm chlordecone,
wastewater at sewage treatment plant, 0.1-10 ppm .