SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 191242
CASRN 191-24-2
SynonymsBenzo(ghi)perylene
Analytical Methods EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 610
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8100
EPA Method 8270
EPA Method 8310
Molecular FormulaC22H12

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use Small amounts are used for scientific research.
Apparent Color Large, pale yellow-green plates (recrystallized from xylene)
Boiling Point 550 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
Melting Point 277 DEG C
Molecular Weight 276.34
Environmental Impact Benzo(ghi)perylene is a component of crude oil and a product of combustion which may be produced and released to the environment during natural fires. Emissions from petroleum refining, coal tar distillation, and the combustion of wood, coal, oil, propane, gasoline and diesel fuels are major contributors of benzo(ghi)perylene to the environment. Benzo(ghi)perylene is not commercially produced in the USA; however, benzo(ghi)perylene may be released to the environment through industrial effluents, municipal waste water treatment facilities and waste incinerators. Benzo(ghi)perylene biodegrades slowly in the environment. The reported biodegradation half-lives for benzo(ghi)perylene in aerobic soil range from 600 to 650 days. Benzo(ghi)perylene is not expected to hydrolyze in the environment. A calculated Koc range of 9X10 4 to 4X10 5 indicates benzo(ghi)perylene will be highly immobile in soil. In aquatic systems, benzo(ghi)perylene partitions from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. Benzo(ghi)perylene also has the potential to bioconcentrate in aquatic systems. A Henry's Law constant of 1.6X10-6 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of benzo(ghi)perylene from shallow, fast moving environmental waters may be important. The volatilization half-lives from a model river and a model pond, the latter considers the effect of adsorption, have been estimated to be 38 days and over 1500 years, respectively. In the atmosphere, the vapor phase reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 2 hr) may be an important fate process. However, benzo(ghi)perylene is expected to exist almost entirely in the particulate phase in ambient air. Nevertheless, benzo(ghi)perylene may undergo direct photolysis in the atmosphere. Photolytic half-lives of benzo(ghi)perylene adsorbed onto silica gel, alumina, fly ash and carbon black were 7, 22, 29 and greater than 1000 hours, respectively. The most probable human exposure would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or inhalation at places where benzo(ghi)perylene is produced as a waste by-product. Atmospheric workplace exposures have been documented. Non-occupational exposures would most likely occur via urban atmospheres, smoked and barbecued foods, contaminated drinking water supplies and recreational activities at contaminated waterways.
Environmental Fate OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL UPTAKE OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATICS (INCLUDING BENZO(GHI)PERYLENE) OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC ORIGIN BY PROXIMALLY GROWN FOOD CROPS ARE DISCUSSED. TERRESTRIAL FATE: In the atmosphere, adsorption to stabilizing substrates will allow benzo(ghi)perylene to be transported over long distances in the atmospheric aerosol. Its detection in the remote rural air of South Carolina and in sediments from remote lakes in the Adirondack Forest, NY may indicate that long-range transport occurs. Removal of adsorbed benzo(ghi)perylene from the atmosphere may occur by wet and dry deposition. Its presence in lake sediments in the Adirondack Forest, NY, has been attributed to physical deposition. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, benzo(ghi)perylene will exist almost entirely in the particulate (adsorbed) phase. The rate of photolysis has been found to vary with the adsorbing substrate; photolysis of benzo(ghi)perylene adsorbed to fly ash may have some importance, but adsorption to carbon black stabilizes the compound toward potential phototransformation. TERRESTRIAL FATE: The reported biodegradation half-lives for benzo(ghi)perylene in aerobic soil range from 600 to 650 days . Benzo(ghi)perylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in soils; yet, should undergo direct photolysis on sunlit surface soils. Photolytic half-lives of benzo(ghi)perylene adsorbed onto silica gel, alumina, fly ash and carbon black were 7, 22, 29 and greater than 1000 hours, respectively . A calculated Koc range of 9X10 4 to 4X10 5 , indicates benzo(ghi)perylene will be highly immobile in soil . AQUATIC FATE: Aerobic aqueous screening test data and soil grab sample data suggest the biodegradation of benzo(ghi)perylene in aquatic systems will be slow. Benzo(ghi)perylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in environmental waters. However, benzo(ghi)perylene may undergo direct photolysis in sunlit waters . Monitoring data and an estimated Koc ranging in the highly immobile class for soil , suggests benzo(ghi)perylene will partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. Benzo(ghi)perylene also has the potential to bioconcentrate in aquatic systems. A Henry's Law constant of 1.6X10-6 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of benzo(ghi)perylene from shallow, fast moving environmental waters may be important . Based on this Henry's Law constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 38 days(3,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be over 1500 years(4,SRC). ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere as a gas, the vapor phase reaction of benzo(ghi)perylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is likely to be an important fate process. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of benzo(ghi)perylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated to be 2.0X10-10 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C; which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 2 hours at an atmospheric concn of 5X10 5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm . However, based upon a vapor pressure of 1.0X10-10 mm Hg at 25 deg C , benzo(ghi)perylene is expected to exist almost entirely in the particulate phase in ambient air . Nevertheless, benzo(ghi)perylene may undergo direct photolysis in the atmosphere. Photolytic half-lives of benzo(ghi)perylene adsorbed onto silica gel, alumina, fly ash and carbon black were 7, 22, 29 and greater than 1000 hours, respectively .
Drinking Water Impact It has been identified in surface water (0.3-28.5 ng/l); tap water (0.8-7.1 ng/l); rain water (2.3-10.8 ng/l); subterranean water (0.7-6.4 ng/l); & waste water (0.4-2.8 ug/l). In an analysis of the USEPA STORET database, benzo(ghi)perylene was positively detected in 1.0% of 914 surface water observation stations and 1.5% of 1211 effluent reporting stations. Benzo(ghi)perylene was detected at concn of 7.3 ug/g (dry sediment) in the sediment and 2.0 ug/l in the water in an effluent wastewater channel from a coking plant. Levels <90 ug/l in wastewaters from two coal coking plants. were detected DRINKING WATER: Benzo(ghi)perylene was listed as a contaminant found in drinking water . SURFACE WATER: Benzo(ghi)perylene is listed as a contaminant of Great Lakes Ontario, Erie, Michigan and Superior including Lake St Clair . Benzo(ghi)perylene had a median concn less than 10 ug/L and tested positive in 1.0% of 914 ambient waters in surface waters from EPA's STORET database . Benzo(ghi)perylene was detected at 2 of 4 sampling stations along the Mississippi River at an average concn of 7 ng/L . GROUNDWATER: Benzo(ghi)perylene was detected in a coal tar contaminated aquifer in St Louis Park, MN . Benzo(ghi)perylene was listed as a ground water contaminant in the Netherlands . RAIN/SNOW: Rain water in Witteveen, de Bilt, Vlissingen and Biest-houtakker, Netherlands contained benzo(ghi)perylene at concn up to from 125, 145, 142 and 241 ng/L with average concn of 39, 68, 61 and 55 ng/L, respectively . EFFL: It has been identified in sludge (200-1220 ug/kg) and freeze-dried sewage sludge samples (400-8700 ug/kg) Benzo(ghi)perylene was detected in 1.5% of 1211 effluent reporting stations. Also levels of <90 ug/l in wastewater and 2.0 ug/l in the water in an effluent wastewater channel from a coking plant /were detected/. Benzo(ghi)perylene was identified as a stack emission and a component of fly and grate ash from municipal waste incinerators . A sewage sludge incinerator emitted benzo(ghi)perylene to the air at concn ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 ug/cu m . Effluent from the Bekkelaget sewage treatment plant benzo(ghi)perylene at concn less than 21 and 16 ng/L after dry and rainy days in Nov 1979 . Benzo(ghi)perylene was identified as a component of sewage sludge(8). Benzo(ghi)perylene comprised between 9 and 15% of the PAH in municipal sewage sludge(6). Municipal refuse and compost from municipal refuse also contained benzo(ghi)perylene(6). The combustion of a diesel fuel containing benzo(ghi)perylene at a concn of 26.3 ng/mL emitted benzo(ghi)perylene at rates of less than 2.0, 35, 12, 8.3, 20 and 1636 ug/hr . Exhaust gas of a light oil and n-decane diesel fuels contained benzo(ghi)perylene at concn of 5.6 and 14.9 ug/cu m . Gasoline fueled vehicles also emit benzo(ghi)perylene(9). Benzo(ghi)perylene comprised 0.015% of the particulate matter emitted from traffic in the Caldecott Tunnel east of Berkeley, CA(10). Benzo(ghi)perylene was emitted from the combustion of propane(7). Both the biotreatment and final effluents of a Class B and E oil refinery contained benzo(ghi)perylene at concn of less than 0.2, and less than 1 ug/L, respectively . Benzo(ghi)perylene was identified as a product of coal combustion . The combustion of coal liquids with 3% oxygen emitted benzo(ghi)perylene at concn ranging from 6.6 to 46.9 ug/cu m with an average of 23.0 ug/cu m for 20 samples . The carbon black combustion product of coal tar contained benzo(ghi)perylene at a concn of 7.0 mg/g . Coal combustion leaked benzo(ghi)perylene to indoor air at a concn of 7.1 ug/cu m . The effluent channel form a coking plant contained benzo(ghi)perylene in the water and sediments at concn of 2.0 ug/L and 7.3 ug/g, respectively(6). Residential coal and oil burning emit benzo(ghi)perylene(7). Coal dust containing benzo(ghi)perylene at 3,641 ng/g leached from piles of coal in VA(8). Wastewater from the gaseous diffusion plant operated by Union Carbide at Oak Ridge, TN contained benzo(ghi)perylene . Emissions from the pouring, cooling and shakeout of aluminum castings contained benzo(ghi)perylene at an average concn of 31 ug/kg . Benzo(ghi)perylene had a median concn less than 10 ug/L and tested positive in 1.5% of 1,211 industrial discharges in waste waters from EPA's STORET database . Non-air tight and air tight wood burning stoves emitted benzo(ghi)perylene to indoor air at average concn of 105 and 1.5 ng/cu m for 11 and 7 samples, respectively . Non-air tight and air tight wood burning stoves emitted benzo(ghi)perylene to outdoor air at average concn of 1.73 and 1.11 ng/cu m for 4 and 7 samples, respectively . The 1978 Amoco Cadiz oil spill emitted benzo(ghi)perylene to the waters and coastal environment of northern France . A power plant in Boston, MA emitted benzo(ghi)perylene to the ambient air at an estimated concn of 5.2X10-7 ug/cu m(6). Effluents from refineries, petrochemical industry, metallurgic industry and municipal wastewater treatment plants in Norway contained benzo(ghi)perylene with a 68% frequency of appearance(7). Domestic fire soot contained benzo(ghi)perylene at concn ranging from 1 to 29 ug/cu m with an average of 11 ng/cu m for 12 samples collected at Christchurch, New Zealand(8).

DISCLAIMER - Please Read

Florida-Spectrum List of Services
Florida-Spectrum Homepage