|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 525.2||EPA Method 610
||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8100
||EPA Method 8270
||EPA Method 8310
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| RESEARCH CHEMICAL
|Consumption Patterns|| NOT USED COMMERCIALLY IN USA
|Apparent Color|| YELLOW PLATES OR NEEDLES FROM LIGHT PETROLEUM; SOLN SHOW
GREENISH YELLOW FLUORESCENCE
|Boiling Point|| 530 deg C
|Melting Point|| 162.5-164 DEG C
|Environmental Impact|| Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) is formed in most combustion or elevated temperature
processes that involve compounds containing carbon and hydrogen. Known IP sources include
coal, wood, and gasoline combustion, municipal waste incineration, coke ovens and cigarette
smoke. IP has also been found in gasoline, fresh and used motor oil, and road runoff. IP released
to soil will sorb strongly (estimated Koc = 20,146) and hence is not expected to leach. No
information was found about volatilization from, hydrolysis in, or biodegradation in soil. IP
released to water will sorb strongly to suspended particulate matter, biota and sediments.
Although there is a high potential for IP to bioconcentrate in most aquatic organisms, it may not
in fish since fish contain microsomal oxidase, which allows polyaromatic hydrocarbons to be
metabolized. No information was found about IP volatilization, photolysis, hydrolysis, or
biodegradation in water. IP will probably be persistent in the aquatic environment and concentrate
in sediments. Almost all IP released to the atmosphere will be sorbed to particulate matter; thus its
atmospheric fate will primarily depend on physical processes such as dry and wet deposition.
However, a computer-estimated half-life for IP in the vapor phase is about 20 hours due to
reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. IP has been found in rain, drinking
water, groundwater, surface waters, treated industrial wastewaters, marine and freshwater
sediments, suspended sediments, automobile exhaust, ambient air, foods (cereals, cooking oils,
barley malt), powdered milk, infant formula, seafoods, and sewage sludge. The primary route of
human exposure to IP will probably be through ingestion of contaminated food. Other
exposure to IP may be from drinking water and breathing air that is contaminated with IP.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene that is transported to soil will sorb
strongly (estimated Koc = 20,146) and hence is not expected to leach extensively. Volatilization
from soil surfaces will probably not be important because of its low vapor pressure. No
information was found on hydrolysis or biodegradation.
AQUATIC FATE: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) that is transported to water will sorb strongly to
suspended particulate matter, biota, and sediments (estimated log Kow = 6.584 ). Based on its
low water solubility and high estimated Kow, there is also a high potential for bioconcentration;
however, this is not likely in organisms that have microsomal oxidase, such as fish, since this
enzyme allows polyaromatic hydrocarbons to be metabolized . No information was found about
volatilization, photolysis, hydrolysis or biodegradation. IP will probably be persistent in the
aquatic environment and concentrate in sediments.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Most indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) in the atmosphere will be sorbed to
particulate matter . Therefore, in the absence of major photodecomposition or other chemical
transformations, the atmospheric fate of IP will depend primarily on physical processes such as
dry and wet deposition. A computer estimated half-life for IP in the vapor phase of the
atmosphere is 20 hours due to reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals .
|Drinking Water Impact|| WHILE IN SURFACE WATER, CONCN RANGED FROM 1.4-123 UG/CU M.
AS MUCH AS 15,000 UG/CU M HAVE BEEN FOUND IN SEWAGE WATER.
DRINKING WATER: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) concentrations (parts per trillion) in drinking
waters were: 1.2 (Pittsburgh), 1.2 (Huntington, WV), 0.7 (Endicott, NY), 0.9 (Hammondsport,
NY), 1.7 (Philadelphia, PA), 2.2 (New York City), and 0.9 (Lake George, NY) . Maximum and
average IP concentrations in Dutch drinking water were 0.075 and 0.008 ug/l, respectively . IP
was generally below the detection limit in British groundwaters used as drinking water; however,
concentrations of up to 51 ng/l were detected during repair work on the distribution systems .
Raw surface waters in the UK used as drinking water sources typically contained IP (5-97 ng/l)
before water treatment; however, after treatment, IP concentrations were always <3 ng/l .
GROUNDWATER: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) was detected in groundwater from a
contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, MN . IP concentrations in groundwaters from Germany
ranged from 0.4-12.6 ng/l and in the Netherlands up to 1 ug/l .
SURFACE WATER: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) concn was <10 ug/l in 878 observations in the
STORET data base . IP was detected in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Michigan and Superior . IP
concentrations (ng/l) in a lake and in rivers in Europe were: 2.6 (Bodensee, 1964), 16.4 (Danube
River, 1964), 32.0 (Main River), and 123.0 (Rhine River at Mainz, 1964) . Concentrations of
IP in 9 rivers in the UK were: 95, 86, 25, 339, 10, 19, 10, 29, and 77 ng/l .
RAINWATER: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene was found in the particulate phase of 3 different rain
samples collected at Birkeland, Norway in 1974-1975 at unspecified concentrations .
EFFL: Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) was detected in vehicle emissions and in an effluent
channel from a coking plant . Sewage effluent in the UK contained 9.9 and 30.1 ng IP/l . IP
concentrations (ug/l) in treated industrial wastewaters in the US (unspecified locations) were:
10-11 (11 avg) from coal mining, not detected - 8.0 (0.35 avg) from nonferrous metals
manufacturing, and 10-110 (10 avg) from timber products processing . IP concentrations from
5-10 ug/l (0.06-0.12 ug/g) up to 160-240 ug/l (4.57-6.86 ug/g) were found in UK sewage sludge