|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 525.2||EPA Method 610
||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8100
||EPA Method 8270
||EPA Method 8310
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| There is no commerical use of this compound
|Apparent Color|| PALE YELLOW NEEDLES FROM BENZENE
|Boiling Point|| 480 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| 217 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 252.32
|Environmental Impact|| Benzo(k)fluoranthene's (BkF) release into air and water is quite general since it is a
ubiquitous product of incomplete combustion. Both in air and water it is largely associated with
particulate matter. Although environmental concentrations are greatest near sources, BkFs
presence in distant places indicates that it is reasonably stable in the atmosphere and capable of
long distant transport. Atmospheric losses are caused by gravitational settling and rainout. On
land it is strongly adsorbed to soil and remains in the upper soil layers and should not leach into
groundwater. Biodegradation may occur but will be very slow (half-life ca 2 years with acclimated
microorganisms). Benzo(k)fluoranthene will get into surface water from dust and precipitation in
addition to runoff and effluents. In the water it will sorb to sediment and particulate matter in the
water column. It would be expected to bioconcentrate in fish and seafood. Human exposure is
from smoking, inhalation of polluted air and eating food contaminated with products of
combustion or prepared in such a way (smoked, charcoal broiled) that polycyclic hydrocarbons
are generated. Since water treatment such as filtration, chlorination and ozonolysis removes
benzo(k)fluoranthene, exposure from drinking water should be minor.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: When benzo(k)fluoranthene is spilled on soil, it will remain in
the surface layers since it is strongly adsorbed. Benzo(k)fluoranthene as with other polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbons degrades slowly in soil. The half-life in soil with previous exposure to
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was about 2 years .
AQUATIC FATE: When benzo(k)fluoranthene is released into water it will rapidly sorb to
sediment and particulate matter in the water column. There is a potential for reaction with alky
peroxy radicals and hydroperoxy radicals which are photochemically produced in humic natural
waters but no specific data could be found concerning this. There is also a potential for sorbed
benzo(k)fluoranthene to be slowly desorbed and, therefore, low levels of benzo(k)fluoranthene in
the water may last for long periods of time.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: The presence of benzo(k)fluoranthene and other polyaromatic
hydrocarbons in distant places far removed from sources, demonstrates not only their potential for
long-ranged transport but also their stability to degradation in their predominant atmospheric state
which is associated with submicron particles and aerosols. These particulates will be transported
but are subject to gravitational settling and scavenging by rain and snow.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: The estimated Koc value of benzo(k)fluoranthene is nearly 1 million
and the widespread detection of benzo(k)fluoranthene in various sediments indicates that
adsorption to suspended particulate matters and sediments is an important environmental fate
process. Movement by sediments is considered to be an important transport process for
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are degraded in soil, their
persistence increasing with the number of condensed rings. Within a subclass in which the number
of rings are constant, the more compact structures are more recalcitrant than the extended ones.
Thirty percent of the total benzo(k)fluoranthene applied to the soil remained after 3 1/2 yr.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Tapwater <0.1 to < 2 ng/l(2,5,6). Benzo(k)fluoranthene may be
picked up in distribution systems lined with coal tar or asphalt (eg Columbus OH finished water <
0.1 ng/l, distributed water 3 ng/l) . Tapwater 0.07-8.0 ng/l . GROUND WATER:
Contaminated groundwater in the Netherlands 3 ug/l max . Groundwater in Germany 0.5-10.0
ng/l , 0.2-3.5 ng/l . SURFACE WATER: 0.8-265 ng/l mostly associated with particulate
matter , 0-400 ng/l . RAINWATER & SNOW: Rain 1.6-450 ng/l . Southern Norway rain
and snow 50-300 ng/l including benzo(b)fluoranthene . SEAWATER: Tamar Estuary, England
4.2 ng/l avg, 382 ng/g avg in suspended solids(7). Benzo(k)fluoranthene concentration in estuary
correlates with total suspended solids in areas away from Plymouth; high concn in vicinity of
Plymouth is due to urban discharges including sewage(7).
Particulate associated benzo(k)fluoranthene has been detected in rainwater. The presence of
benzo(k)fluoranthene in lake sediments in the Adirondack Forest in New York has been attributed
to physical deposition. Dissolved benzo(k)fluoranthene has also been detected in rainwater,
suggesting that physical removal by washout or dissolution into clouds with subsequent rainfall
may be possible.
EFFL: Industries in which the mean levels of benzo(k)fluoranthene in raw or treated wastewater
exceeds 10 ppb include nonferrous metals manufacturing, organic chemical manufacturing/plastics
and timber products processing . Maximum levels which exceed 10 ppb include: coal mining 11
ppb, coil coating 10 ppb, foundries 10 ppb, nonferrous metal manufacturing 210 ppb, and timber
products processing 3900 ppb . Norwegian sewage treatment plant < 3 ng/l . National Urban
Runoff Program (86 samples from 19 cities), frequency of detection 2%, 4-10 ppb in runoff at
Lake Quinsigamond, MA and Bellevue, WA . Effluent discharge 0.01-8 ppb and sludge
150-1270 ppb . Emissions from burning coal 0.05-17.2 ppm . Emissions from oil-fired stoves
0.03-405 ppb .