SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 207089
CASRN 207-08-9
SynonymsBenzo(k)fluoranthene
Analytical Methods EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 610
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8100
EPA Method 8270
EPA Method 8310
Molecular FormulaC20H12

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use There is no commerical use of this compound
Apparent Color PALE YELLOW NEEDLES FROM BENZENE
Boiling Point 480 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
Melting Point 217 DEG C
Molecular Weight 252.32
Environmental Impact Benzo(k)fluoranthene's (BkF) release into air and water is quite general since it is a ubiquitous product of incomplete combustion. Both in air and water it is largely associated with particulate matter. Although environmental concentrations are greatest near sources, BkFs presence in distant places indicates that it is reasonably stable in the atmosphere and capable of long distant transport. Atmospheric losses are caused by gravitational settling and rainout. On land it is strongly adsorbed to soil and remains in the upper soil layers and should not leach into groundwater. Biodegradation may occur but will be very slow (half-life ca 2 years with acclimated microorganisms). Benzo(k)fluoranthene will get into surface water from dust and precipitation in addition to runoff and effluents. In the water it will sorb to sediment and particulate matter in the water column. It would be expected to bioconcentrate in fish and seafood. Human exposure is from smoking, inhalation of polluted air and eating food contaminated with products of combustion or prepared in such a way (smoked, charcoal broiled) that polycyclic hydrocarbons are generated. Since water treatment such as filtration, chlorination and ozonolysis removes benzo(k)fluoranthene, exposure from drinking water should be minor.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: When benzo(k)fluoranthene is spilled on soil, it will remain in the surface layers since it is strongly adsorbed. Benzo(k)fluoranthene as with other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degrades slowly in soil. The half-life in soil with previous exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was about 2 years . AQUATIC FATE: When benzo(k)fluoranthene is released into water it will rapidly sorb to sediment and particulate matter in the water column. There is a potential for reaction with alky peroxy radicals and hydroperoxy radicals which are photochemically produced in humic natural waters but no specific data could be found concerning this. There is also a potential for sorbed benzo(k)fluoranthene to be slowly desorbed and, therefore, low levels of benzo(k)fluoranthene in the water may last for long periods of time. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: The presence of benzo(k)fluoranthene and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons in distant places far removed from sources, demonstrates not only their potential for long-ranged transport but also their stability to degradation in their predominant atmospheric state which is associated with submicron particles and aerosols. These particulates will be transported but are subject to gravitational settling and scavenging by rain and snow. TERRESTRIAL FATE: The estimated Koc value of benzo(k)fluoranthene is nearly 1 million and the widespread detection of benzo(k)fluoranthene in various sediments indicates that adsorption to suspended particulate matters and sediments is an important environmental fate process. Movement by sediments is considered to be an important transport process for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are degraded in soil, their persistence increasing with the number of condensed rings. Within a subclass in which the number of rings are constant, the more compact structures are more recalcitrant than the extended ones. Thirty percent of the total benzo(k)fluoranthene applied to the soil remained after 3 1/2 yr.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Tapwater <0.1 to < 2 ng/l(2,5,6). Benzo(k)fluoranthene may be picked up in distribution systems lined with coal tar or asphalt (eg Columbus OH finished water < 0.1 ng/l, distributed water 3 ng/l) . Tapwater 0.07-8.0 ng/l . GROUND WATER: Contaminated groundwater in the Netherlands 3 ug/l max . Groundwater in Germany 0.5-10.0 ng/l , 0.2-3.5 ng/l . SURFACE WATER: 0.8-265 ng/l mostly associated with particulate matter , 0-400 ng/l . RAINWATER & SNOW: Rain 1.6-450 ng/l . Southern Norway rain and snow 50-300 ng/l including benzo(b)fluoranthene . SEAWATER: Tamar Estuary, England 4.2 ng/l avg, 382 ng/g avg in suspended solids(7). Benzo(k)fluoranthene concentration in estuary correlates with total suspended solids in areas away from Plymouth; high concn in vicinity of Plymouth is due to urban discharges including sewage(7). Particulate associated benzo(k)fluoranthene has been detected in rainwater. The presence of benzo(k)fluoranthene in lake sediments in the Adirondack Forest in New York has been attributed to physical deposition. Dissolved benzo(k)fluoranthene has also been detected in rainwater, suggesting that physical removal by washout or dissolution into clouds with subsequent rainfall may be possible. EFFL: Industries in which the mean levels of benzo(k)fluoranthene in raw or treated wastewater exceeds 10 ppb include nonferrous metals manufacturing, organic chemical manufacturing/plastics and timber products processing . Maximum levels which exceed 10 ppb include: coal mining 11 ppb, coil coating 10 ppb, foundries 10 ppb, nonferrous metal manufacturing 210 ppb, and timber products processing 3900 ppb . Norwegian sewage treatment plant < 3 ng/l . National Urban Runoff Program (86 samples from 19 cities), frequency of detection 2%, 4-10 ppb in runoff at Lake Quinsigamond, MA and Bellevue, WA . Effluent discharge 0.01-8 ppb and sludge 150-1270 ppb . Emissions from burning coal 0.05-17.2 ppm . Emissions from oil-fired stoves 0.03-405 ppb .

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