SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 208968
CASRN 208-96-8
SynonymsAcenaphthylene
Analytical Methods EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 610
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8100
EPA Method 8270
EPA Method 8310
Molecular FormulaC12H8

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Boiling Point 265-275 DEG C
Melting Point 92-93 deg C
Molecular Weight 152.20
Density 0.8988 at 16 deg C/2 deg C
Environmental Impact Acenaphthylene is a component of crude oil, coal tar and a product of combustion which may be produced and released to the environment during natural fires. Emissions from petroleum refining and coal tar distillation are major contributors of acenaphthylene to the environment. Acenaphthylene is contained in a variety of coal tar products and may be released to the environment via manufacturing effluents and the disposal of manufacturing waste byproducts. Because of the widespread use of materials containing acenaphthylene, releases to the environment also occurs through municipal waste water treatment facilities and municipal waste incinerators. Acenaphthylene should biodegrade in the environment. The reported biodegradation half-lives for acenaphthylene in aerobic soil range from 12 to 121 days. Acenaphthylene is not expected to hydrolyze or bioconcentrate in the environment; yet, may undergo direct photolysis in sunlit environmental media. A calculated Koc range of 950 to 3315 indicates acenaphthylene will have a low to slight mobility class in soil. In aquatic systems, acenaphthylene may partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law constant of 1.13X10-5 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of acenaphthylene from environmental waters may be important. The volatilization half-lives from a model river and a model pond, the later considers the effect of adsorption, have been estimated to be 4 and 184 days, respectively. Acenaphthylene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor-phase in ambient air. In the atmosphere, reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone (respective estimated half-lives of 5 and 1 hr) are likely to be important fate processes. The most probable human exposure would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or inhalation at places where acenaphthylene is produced or used. Atmospheric workplace exposures have been documented. Non-occupational exposures would most likely occur via urban atmospheres, contaminated drinking water supplies and recreational activities at contaminated waterways.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: The reported biodegradation half-lives for acenaphthylene in aerobic soil range from 12 to 121 days . Acenaphthylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in soils; yet, should undergo direct photolysis in sunlit surface soils . A calculated Koc range of 2065 to 3230 , indicates acenaphthylene will have a low to slight mobility class in soil . Monitoring data also demonstrates that acenaphthylene will flow with groundwater when spilled or deposited at heavy concn. A calculated Henry's Law constant of 1.13X10-5 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of acenaphthylene from moist soils where absorption has not occurred may be important. AQUATIC FATE: Based on evidence of biodegradation in soil, acenaphthylene should biodegrade in aquatic systems. Acenaphthylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis or bioconcentrate in environmental waters. However, acenaphthylene may undergo direct photolysis in sunlit waters based upon aqueous photolysis data for acenaphthene and photolysis data for acenaphthylene absorbed onto various particulate materials . Monitoring data and an estimated Koc ranging from the low to slightly mobile class for soil , suggests acenaphthylene will partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law constant of 1.13X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of acenaphthylene from environmental waters may be important . Based on this Henry's Law Constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 4.1 days(4,SRC). The volatilization half-life from an model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be about 184 days(5,SRC). ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 9.12X10-4 mm Hg at 25 deg C , acenaphthylene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air . Acenaphthylene absorbs UV in the environmentally significant range (>290 nm), with Lambda max of 311, 323, 335 and 340 nm in cyclohexane . Based upon aqueous photolysis data for acenaphthene and photolysis data for acenaphthylene absorbed onto various particulate materials , acenaphthylene will probably undergo direct photolysis in the atmosphere. The vapor phase reactions of acenaphthylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone are likely to be important fate processes in the atmosphere. The rate constants for the vapor-phase reactions of acenaphthylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone have been estimated to be 84.45X10-12 and 25.2X10-17 cu cm/molecule-sec, respectively, at 25 deg C; which correspond to an atmospheric half-lives of about 5 and 1 hours at an atmospheric concn of 5X10 5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm and 7X10 11 ozone molecules per cu cm(6).
Drinking Water Impact Drinking water: Eastern Ontario drinking water June to October 1978, 0.1-2.0 ng/l (n= 12); Raw water June to October 1978, 0.1-0.5 ng/l (n= 2). DRINKING WATER: Two of five samples of Nordic tap water contained acenaphthylene at concn of 1.6 to 0.40 ng/l . Acenaphthylene was listed as a contaminant found in drinking water(2,3) for a survey of US cities including Pomona, Escondido, Lake Tahoe and Orange Co, CA and Dallas, Washington, DC, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, Ottumwa, IA, and Seattle . SURFACE WATER: Acenaphthylene is listed as a contaminant of Great Lakes Ontario, Erie, Michigan and Superior . Acenaphthylene had a median conc less than 10 ug/l and tested positive in 3.0% of 920 ambient waters in the USEPA STORET database . Acenaphthylene was detected at 2 of 4 sampling stations along the Mississippi River at an average concn of 3 ng/l . Acenaphthylene was also detected in Yellow River water, Peoples Republic of China . Ohio river water contained acenaphthylene at the cities of Wheeling. GROUNDWATER: Acenaphthylene was detected in a coal tar contaminated aquifer in St Louis Park, MN at concn ranging from 0.01 to 0.11 mg/kg sediment . Wood preserving chemicals at Pensacola, FL are responsible for an acenaphthylene concn of 0.05 and 0.03 mg/l at ground water depths of 18 and 24 m, respectively . Groundwater samples from nearby the Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained acenaphthylene . RAIN/SNOW: Rain water in Portland, OR contained acenaphthylene at concn ranging from 23 to 59 ng/l between Feb 12 and April 12, 1984, with an average for 7 samples of 37 ng/l . Snow pack from the city of St Marie, Canada contained acenaphthylene at concn ranging from less than 0.050 to 0.153 ug/l . EFFL: Acenaphthylene was identified as a stack emission and a component of grate and fly ash(1-3) from municipal waste incinerators. Effluent from a sewage treatment facility at Bekkelaget, Norway contained acenaphthylene at concn of 37, 471 and 73 ng/l for dry Fall and Spring days, and after a summer rain, respectively . The biotreatment and final effluents of Class A, B and E oil refineries contained acenaphthylene at concn of 4, less than 1; less than 1, less than 1; and 87, less than 1 ug/l, respectively . Wastewater from the gaseous diffusion plant operated by Union Carbide at Oak Ridge, TN contained acenaphthylene in the volatile fraction . Leachate from Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained acenaphthylene . Emissions from the pouring, cooling and shakeout of iron castings contained acenaphthylene at an average concn of 350 and 80 ug/kg for the evaporative casting and green sand processes, respectively . Effluent from a textile finishing operation also contained acenaphthylene . Acenaphthylene had a median concn less than 10 ug/l and tested positive in 2.8% of 1,271 industrial discharges in the USEPA STORET database(6).

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