|Environmental Impact|| Acenaphthylene is a component of crude oil, coal tar and a product of combustion which
may be produced and released to the environment during natural fires. Emissions from petroleum
refining and coal tar distillation are major contributors of acenaphthylene to the environment.
Acenaphthylene is contained in a variety of coal tar products and may be released to the
environment via manufacturing effluents and the disposal of manufacturing waste byproducts.
Because of the widespread use of materials containing acenaphthylene, releases to the
environment also occurs through municipal waste water treatment facilities and municipal waste
incinerators. Acenaphthylene should biodegrade in the environment. The reported biodegradation
half-lives for acenaphthylene in aerobic soil range from 12 to 121 days. Acenaphthylene is not
expected to hydrolyze or bioconcentrate in the environment; yet, may undergo direct photolysis in
sunlit environmental media. A calculated Koc range of 950 to 3315 indicates acenaphthylene will
have a low to slight mobility class in soil. In aquatic systems, acenaphthylene may partition from
the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law
constant of 1.13X10-5 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of acenaphthylene from
environmental waters may be important. The volatilization half-lives from a model river and a
model pond, the later considers the effect of adsorption, have been estimated to be 4 and 184
days, respectively. Acenaphthylene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor-phase in ambient air.
In the atmosphere, reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone
(respective estimated half-lives of 5 and 1 hr) are likely to be important fate processes. The most
probable human exposure would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal
contact or inhalation at places where acenaphthylene is produced or used. Atmospheric workplace
exposures have been documented. Non-occupational exposures would most likely occur via urban
atmospheres, contaminated drinking water supplies and recreational activities at contaminated
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: The reported biodegradation half-lives for acenaphthylene in
aerobic soil range from 12 to 121 days . Acenaphthylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis
in soils; yet, should undergo direct photolysis in sunlit surface soils . A calculated Koc range of
2065 to 3230 , indicates acenaphthylene will have a low to slight mobility class in soil .
Monitoring data also demonstrates that acenaphthylene will flow with groundwater when spilled
or deposited at heavy concn. A calculated Henry's Law constant of 1.13X10-5 atm-cu m/mole at
25 deg C suggests volatilization of acenaphthylene from moist soils where absorption has
not occurred may be important.
AQUATIC FATE: Based on evidence of biodegradation in soil, acenaphthylene should
biodegrade in aquatic systems. Acenaphthylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis or
bioconcentrate in environmental waters. However, acenaphthylene may undergo direct photolysis
in sunlit waters based upon aqueous photolysis data for acenaphthene and photolysis data for
acenaphthylene absorbed onto various particulate materials . Monitoring data and an estimated
Koc ranging from the low to slightly mobile class for soil , suggests acenaphthylene will
partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A
Henry's Law constant of 1.13X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of
acenaphthylene from environmental waters may be important . Based on this Henry's Law
Constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 4.1 days(4,SRC).
The volatilization half-life from an model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been
estimated to be about 184 days(5,SRC).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 9.12X10-4 mm Hg at 25 deg C ,
acenaphthylene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air . Acenaphthylene
absorbs UV in the environmentally significant range (>290 nm), with Lambda max of 311, 323,
335 and 340 nm in cyclohexane . Based upon aqueous photolysis data for acenaphthene and
photolysis data for acenaphthylene absorbed onto various particulate materials , acenaphthylene
will probably undergo direct photolysis in the atmosphere. The vapor phase reactions of
acenaphthylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone are likely to be
important fate processes in the atmosphere. The rate constants for the vapor-phase reactions of
acenaphthylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone have been estimated
to be 84.45X10-12 and 25.2X10-17 cu cm/molecule-sec, respectively, at 25 deg C; which
correspond to an atmospheric half-lives of about 5 and 1 hours at an atmospheric concn of
5X10 5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm and 7X10 11 ozone molecules per cu cm(6).
|Drinking Water Impact|| Drinking water: Eastern Ontario drinking water June to October 1978, 0.1-2.0 ng/l (n=
12); Raw water June to October 1978, 0.1-0.5 ng/l (n= 2).
DRINKING WATER: Two of five samples of Nordic tap water contained acenaphthylene at
concn of 1.6 to 0.40 ng/l . Acenaphthylene was listed as a contaminant found in drinking
water(2,3) for a survey of US cities including Pomona, Escondido, Lake Tahoe and Orange Co,
CA and Dallas, Washington, DC, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, Ottumwa, IA,
and Seattle .
SURFACE WATER: Acenaphthylene is listed as a contaminant of Great Lakes Ontario, Erie,
Michigan and Superior . Acenaphthylene had a median conc less than 10 ug/l and tested
positive in 3.0% of 920 ambient waters in the USEPA STORET database . Acenaphthylene was
detected at 2 of 4 sampling stations along the Mississippi River at an average concn of 3 ng/l .
Acenaphthylene was also detected in Yellow River water, Peoples Republic of China . Ohio
river water contained acenaphthylene at the cities of Wheeling.
GROUNDWATER: Acenaphthylene was detected in a coal tar contaminated aquifer in St Louis
Park, MN at concn ranging from 0.01 to 0.11 mg/kg sediment . Wood preserving chemicals
at Pensacola, FL are responsible for an acenaphthylene concn of 0.05 and 0.03 mg/l at ground
water depths of 18 and 24 m, respectively . Groundwater samples from nearby the Hooker
Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained acenaphthylene .
RAIN/SNOW: Rain water in Portland, OR contained acenaphthylene at concn ranging from 23
to 59 ng/l between Feb 12 and April 12, 1984, with an average for 7 samples of 37 ng/l . Snow
pack from the city of St Marie, Canada contained acenaphthylene at concn ranging from less than
0.050 to 0.153 ug/l .
EFFL: Acenaphthylene was identified as a stack emission and a component of grate and fly
ash(1-3) from municipal waste incinerators. Effluent from a sewage treatment facility at
Bekkelaget, Norway contained acenaphthylene at concn of 37, 471 and 73 ng/l for dry Fall and
Spring days, and after a summer rain, respectively .
The biotreatment and final effluents of Class A, B and E oil refineries contained acenaphthylene
at concn of 4, less than 1; less than 1, less than 1; and 87, less than 1 ug/l, respectively .
Wastewater from the gaseous diffusion plant operated by Union Carbide at Oak Ridge, TN
contained acenaphthylene in the volatile fraction . Leachate from Hooker Chemical and Plastics
Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained acenaphthylene . Emissions from the pouring,
cooling and shakeout of iron castings contained acenaphthylene at an average concn of 350 and
80 ug/kg for the evaporative casting and green sand processes, respectively . Effluent from a
textile finishing operation also contained acenaphthylene . Acenaphthylene had a median concn
less than 10 ug/l and tested positive in 2.8% of 1,271 industrial discharges in the USEPA