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Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 218019
CASRN 218-01-9
SynonymsChrysene
1,2-Benzphenanthrene
Analytical Methods EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 610
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8100
EPA Method 8270
EPA Method 8310
Molecular FormulaC18H12

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use ORGANIC SYNTHESIS RESEARCH CHEMICAL
Apparent Color RED BLUE FLUORESCENT RHOMBIC PLATES FROM BENZENE, ACETIC ACID; ORTHORHOMBIC BIPYRAMIDAL PLATES FROM BENZENE; COLORLESS PLATELETS WITH BLUE FLUORESCENCE
Boiling Point 448 DEG C
Melting Point 255-256 DEG C
Molecular Weight 228.28
Density 1.274 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Environmental Impact Chrysene's release to the environment is quite wide spread since it is a ubiquitous product of incomplete combustion. It is largely associated with particulate matter, soils, and sediments. If released to soil it will be expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not be expected to leach appreciably to groundwater. It will not hydrolyze or appreciably evaporate from soils or surfaces, and it may be subject to biodegradation in soils. If released to water, it will adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter, but will not hydrolyze or appreciably evaporate. It will bioconcentrate in species which lack microsomal oxidase. It will be subject to near-surface, direct photolysis with a half-life of 4.4 hrs computed for exposure to sunlight at mid-day in midsummer at latitude 40 deg N. The small amount of information available suggests that chrysene may be subject to biodegradation in water systems. Adsorption to various materials may affect the rate of these processes. If released to air, chrysene will be subject to direct photolysis, although adsorption to particulates may affect the rate of this process. The estimated half-life of any gas phase chrysene in the atmosphere is 1.25 hrs as a result of reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Human exposure will be from inhalation of contaminated air and consumption of contaminated food and water. Especially high exposure will occur through the smoking of cigarettes and ingestion of certain foods (eg smoked and charcoal broiled meats and fish).
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If chrysene is released to soil it will be expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not be expected to leach to groundwater. It will not hydrolyze and evaporation from soils and surfaces will not be expected to be significant. The very little information concerning the biodegradability of chrysene in aqueous systems in the literature suggests that chrysene may be subject to degradation in soils, but the data are conflicting. AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, chrysene will be expected to adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter. It will not hydrolyze and will not be expected to appreciably evaporate. Chrysene may be subject to bioconcentration in organisms which lack microsomal oxidase (this enzyme enables the rapid metabolism of polyaromatic hydrocarbons). It will be subject to direct photodegradation near the surface of waters; a near-surface half-life of 4.4 hr was computed for sunlight at latitude 40 deg N. However, the photolysis rate may be affected if chrysene in adsorbed onto suspended particulate matter. The very little information concerning the biodegradability of chrysene in aqueous systems in the literature suggest that chrysene may be subject to degradation; however, the data are conflicting. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Chrysene released to the atmosphere will likely be associated with particulate matter and may be subject to long distance transport, depending on the particle size distribution and climactic conditions which will determine the rates of wet and dry deposition. It may be subject to direct photodegradation, but evidence suggests that adsorption to various substrates may affect the rate of this process.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Nordic tap water (sum of chrysene and triphenylene), 4 samples, 0.47-6.7 ppt . Detected (not quantified) in large volume samples of finished drinking water . Finished drinking water, 21 ppt; distributed drinking water, 4-26 ppt (max from system with coal-tar lined pipes) . GROUNDWATER: St. Louis Park, contaminated aquifer, identified, not quantified . SURFACE WATER: 7.6-62.0 ppt . US STORET database, 852 samples, 4.0% pos, median < 10 ppb . Main River, W Germany, 1964, 38.2 ppt; Thames River, UK, Kew Bridge, 140 ppt, Albert Bridge, 270 ppt, Tower Bridge, 530 ppt . Tamer Estuary, May 1980, 3.5 ppt . RAINWATER: Portland, OR, Feb-April, 1984, 7 sampling periods, 1-5 days each: 3.3-12 ppt, avg 7.9 ppt ; Concn in rain contained in particulate matter, 1.3-11 ppt . EFFL: CHRYSENE WAS DETERMINED IN EFFLUENT FROM BEKKELAGET SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN NORWAY AT UP TO 184 NG/L (1980); AT UP TO 50 NG/G IN TRANSPLANTED MUSSELS OUTSIDE THE BEKKELAGET SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT; AT UP TO 6.7 NG/L IN SAMPLES OF NORDIC TAP WATER. 24-HOUR COMPOSITE SAMPLES OF WASTEWATERS WERE ANALYZED FROM DISSOLVED AIR FLOATATION (DAF) AND FINAL CLARIFIER (FC) UNITS OF CLASS B REFINERY ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT SYSTEM. CHRYSENE WAS PRESENT IN BOTH SAMPLES. US STORET database, 1,236 samples, 3.3% pos, median < 10 ppb . Estimated emissions from mobile sources, 1979, 150 metric tons . Wood smoke, chrysene/benz(a)anthracene, ppm, seasoned oak, fireplace, < 1, baffled stove 13, non-baffled stove 8 . Mean raw wastewater concn, ppb, in those industries exceeding 100 ppb includes (max wastewater concn, ppb): iron and steel < 200 (800), foundries 2400 (13,000), photographic 180 (350), nonferrous metals 160 (10,000), organic chamicals/plastics 390(-) .

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