|Environmental Impact|| Chrysene's release to the environment is quite wide spread since it is a ubiquitous
product of incomplete combustion. It is largely associated with particulate matter, soils, and
sediments. If released to soil it will be expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not be
expected to leach appreciably to groundwater. It will not hydrolyze or appreciably evaporate from
soils or surfaces, and it may be subject to biodegradation in soils. If released to water, it will
adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter, but will not hydrolyze or appreciably
evaporate. It will bioconcentrate in species which lack microsomal oxidase. It will be subject to
near-surface, direct photolysis with a half-life of 4.4 hrs computed for exposure to sunlight at
mid-day in midsummer at latitude 40 deg N. The small amount of information available suggests
that chrysene may be subject to biodegradation in water systems. Adsorption to various materials
may affect the rate of these processes. If released to air, chrysene will be subject to direct
photolysis, although adsorption to particulates may affect the rate of this process. The estimated
half-life of any gas phase chrysene in the atmosphere is 1.25 hrs as a result of reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Human exposure will be from inhalation of
contaminated air and consumption of contaminated food and water. Especially high exposure will
occur through the smoking of cigarettes and ingestion of certain foods (eg smoked and charcoal
broiled meats and fish).
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Nordic tap water (sum of chrysene and triphenylene), 4 samples,
0.47-6.7 ppt . Detected (not quantified) in large volume samples of finished drinking water .
Finished drinking water, 21 ppt; distributed drinking water, 4-26 ppt (max from system with
coal-tar lined pipes) .
GROUNDWATER: St. Louis Park, contaminated aquifer, identified, not quantified .
SURFACE WATER: 7.6-62.0 ppt . US STORET database, 852 samples, 4.0% pos, median <
10 ppb . Main River, W Germany, 1964, 38.2 ppt; Thames River, UK, Kew Bridge, 140 ppt,
Albert Bridge, 270 ppt, Tower Bridge, 530 ppt . Tamer Estuary, May 1980, 3.5 ppt .
RAINWATER: Portland, OR, Feb-April, 1984, 7 sampling periods, 1-5 days each: 3.3-12 ppt,
avg 7.9 ppt ; Concn in rain contained in particulate matter, 1.3-11 ppt .
EFFL: CHRYSENE WAS DETERMINED IN EFFLUENT FROM BEKKELAGET SEWAGE
TREATMENT PLANT IN NORWAY AT UP TO 184 NG/L (1980); AT UP TO 50 NG/G IN
TRANSPLANTED MUSSELS OUTSIDE THE BEKKELAGET SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT; AT UP TO 6.7 NG/L IN SAMPLES OF NORDIC TAP WATER.
24-HOUR COMPOSITE SAMPLES OF WASTEWATERS WERE ANALYZED FROM
DISSOLVED AIR FLOATATION (DAF) AND FINAL CLARIFIER (FC) UNITS OF CLASS
B REFINERY ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT SYSTEM. CHRYSENE WAS
PRESENT IN BOTH SAMPLES.
US STORET database, 1,236 samples, 3.3% pos, median < 10 ppb . Estimated emissions
from mobile sources, 1979, 150 metric tons . Wood smoke, chrysene/benz(a)anthracene, ppm,
seasoned oak, fireplace, < 1, baffled stove 13, non-baffled stove 8 . Mean raw wastewater
concn, ppb, in those industries exceeding 100 ppb includes (max wastewater concn, ppb): iron
and steel < 200 (800), foundries 2400 (13,000), photographic 180 (350), nonferrous metals 160
(10,000), organic chamicals/plastics 390(-) .