SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 2212671
CASRN 2212-67-1
SynonymsMolinate
1H-Azepine-1-carbothioic acid, hexahydro-, S-ethyl ester
S-Ethyl hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate
Jalan
Yalan
Analytical Method EPA Method 634
Molecular FormulaC9H17NOS

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use SELECTIVE HERBICIDE Registered for use on rice for the control of watergrass (Echinochloa species) and other weeds. MOLINATE IS TOXIC TO GERMINATING BROAD-LEAVED & GRASSY WEEDS & IS PARTICULARLY USEFUL FOR CONTROL OF ECHINOCHLOA SPECIES IN RICE @ 2-4 KG AI/HA. Systemic herbicide
Apparent Color CLEAR LIQUID ; Amber liquid
Odor AROMATIC
Boiling Point 202 DEG C @ 10 MM HG
Molecular Weight 187.33
Density 1.5156 @ 30 DEG C/D
Sensitivity Data Irritating to skin and eyes .
Environmental Impact Molinate is released directly to the environment through its use and application as an agricultural herbicide . If released to soil, microbial degradation will be the major environmental degradation process. The half-life of molinate in soil is reported to be about 3 weeks; half-life of applications to flooded rice fields are reported to range from about 1 to 6 days. Field studies have shown that volatilization can be the dominant removal process for molinate applications to soil and flooded rice field surfaces; molinate is readily lost from soil by volatilization at the time of application when the herbicide is not incorporated into the soil immediately. Molinate will leach readily. If released to water, molinate will degrade through biodegradation and photodegradation (via sunlight formed hydroxyl radicals). Anaerobic conditions retard microbial degradation. Volatilization from warm, shallow waters of flooded rice fields (or similar conditions) can be a major removal mechanism; however, volatilization of dissolved molinate from deeper rivers or lakes is expected to be slow. If released to the atmosphere, molinate will exist primarily in the vapor phase; vapor phase molinate degrades readily by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 12.7 hours). Physical removal from the atmosphere may occur through wet and dry deposition. Occupational exposure to molinate occurs through dermal contact and inhalation of dust.
Environmental Fate Ordram was applied in granular form to flooded rice paddy. The half-life of Ordram was less than 100 hr. No significant residues were present in the water after 192 hr. In a rice field, Ordram was half gone in 3 days. About 80% of the Ordram was lost by vaporization. Field studies conducted under flooded rice cultivation indicated that molinate had a half-life of 74 to 118 hr in intermittent flow plots and 37 to 71 hr in continuous flow plots. The half-life was not dependent on application rate. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Biodegradation is the major degradation process for molinate in soil . Degradation studies have shown that molinate will degrade more rapidly in non-sterile soil than in sterile soil . Degradation under anaerobic soil conditions is reported to be slower than under aerobic conditions . Field studies have shown that volatilization can be the dominant removal process for molinate applications to soil and flooded rice field surfaces(4-5). Molinate is readily lost from soil by volatilization at the time of application when the herbicide is not incorporated into the soil immediately . It is adsorbed by dry soil, but is readily removed by leaching as predicted by Koc values of 80-190(6-7). The half-life in most loam soils (at 21-27 deg C) is approximately 3 weeks ; the US Dept of Agric's Pesticide Properties Database lists a soil half-life of 21 days(7). Half-life of applications to flooded rice fields are reported to range from about 1 to 6 days(3,4,9). AQUATIC FATE: Molinate can degrade in water through biodegradation and photooxidation . Molinate has been shown to undergo a photo-sensitized degradation (via reaction with photochemically formed species such as hydroxyl radicals) in natural water(2-3); photodegradation rates will depend upon sunlight intensity and availability of sensitizing agents such as humic materials, amino acids, etc. Anaerobic conditions retard microbial degradation in aqueous media ; therefore, persistence is expected to increase in anaerobic conditions with no sunlight exposure. AQUATIC FATE: Volatilization from warm, shallow waters of flooded rice fields (or similar conditions) can be a major removal mechanism(1-2); however, volatilization of dissolved molinate from deeper rivers or lakes is expected to be slow based upon measured Henry's Law constants(3-4,SRC). Adsorption to sediment will have minor importance based upon measured Koc values of 80-89(5,SRC). The half-life of molinate in natural waters collected from rice paddies or rivers fed by rice paddy runoff ranged from 0.6 to 6.6 days(6). ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 5.6X10-3 mm Hg at 25 deg C , molinate will exist primarily in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere(2,SRC). It will degrade readily in the vapor phase by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of 12.7 hr(3,SRC). Physical removal of molinate aerosols (released via spray applications of molinate herbicides) and particulates by wet (rainfall, etc) and dry deposition (settling) can also occur.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Tap water samples collected near the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station near Beaumont, TX in July 1977 contained molinate concns of approximately 33 ppm . SURFACE WATER: Monitoring of seven Japanese rivers flowing into Lake Biwa in 1988 and

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