SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 33213659
CASRN 33213-65-9
SynonymsEndosulfan II
Endosulfan Beta
Molecular FormulaC9H6Cl603S

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Use INSECTICIDE, EG, FOR DECIDUOUS FRUITS, NUTS, COTTON, & VEGETABLES; ACARICIDE Insecticide used to control the Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, cabbageworm, peach tree borer, and the tarnished plant bug. [R5] CONTROLS APHIDS, THRIPS, BEETLES, FOLIAR FEEDING LARVAE, MITES, BORERS, CUTWORMS, BOLLWORM, BUGS, WHITEFLIES, LEAFHOPPERS, & SLUGS ON DECIDUOUS, CITRUS & SMALL FRUITS, VEGETABLES, FORAGE CROPS, OIL CROPS, FIBER CROPS, GRAINS, TOBACCO, COFFEE, TEA, FOREST, ORNAMENTALS. CONTROLS TERMITES & TSETSE FLY. FOREIGN APPLICATION ... FOR CONTROL OF GREEN LEAFHOPPERS, STEM BORERS & WHORL MAGGOT IN LOWLAND RICE, SHOOTFLY IN SORGHUM, POD BORERS IN LEGUMES ... INSECTICIDE USED ON DECIDUOUS FRUITS/NUTS, 50%; INSECTICIDE USED ON VEGETABLES, 50% (1982)
Apparent ColorBrown crystals
OdorSimilar to terpene
Boiling Point 106 DEG C @0.7 mm Hg (Dec)
Melting Point 106 DEG C
Molecular Weight 406.95
MiscCORROSIVITY: Corrosive to iron DENSITY: 1.735 @ 20 DEG C PH: pH 7.2 in tap water. SOL: PRACTICALLY INSOL IN WATER; SOL IN MOST ORGANIC SOLVENTS ; SOL IN XYLENE, KEROSENE, CHLOROFORM, ACETONE, & ALCOHOL ; 200 g/l in ethyl acetate @ 20 deg C ; 200 g/l in dichloromethane @ 20 deg C ; 200 g/l in toluene @ 20 deg C ; 65 g/l in ethanol @ 20 deg C ; 24 g/l in hexane @ 20 deg C MP: 70-100 DEG C; STABLE TOWARD DIL MINERAL ACIDS; HYDROLYZED RAPIDLY BY ALKALIES; COMMERCIAL PRODUCT IS A MIXTURE OF ALPHA-ISOMER, MP: 108-110 DEG C, & BETA-ISOMER, MP: 208-210 DEG C /TECHNICAL/ DECOMP IN PRESENCE OF ACIDS & ALKALIES TO FORM SULFUR DIOXIDE; CORROSIVE TO IRON; ODOR OF HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE & MAY HAVE SLIGHT SULFUR DIOXIDE ODOR, TAN, SEMI-WAXY SOLID /TECHNICAL/ HYDROLYZES SLOWLY ON CONTACT WITH WATER COLORLESS CRYSTALS /ALPHA-ISOMER/ Octanol/water partition coefficient: log Kow= 3.55 /alpha-Endosulfan/; log Kow= 3.62 /beta-Endosulfan/ Solubility at 22 deg C and a pH 7.2 in tap water; alpha-Endosulfan: 0.15 mg/l. Solubility at 22 deg C and a pH 7.2 in tap water; beta-Endosulfan: 0.06 mg/l. DOT: Health Hazards: Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may give off poisonous gases and cause water pollution. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Fire or Explosion: Some of these materials may burn, but none of them ignites readily. Container may explode violently in heat of fire. Emergency Action: Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind, out of low areas, and ventilate closed spaces before entering. Self-contained breathing apparatus and chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the shipper or producer may be worn but they do not provide thermal protection unless it is stated by the clothing manufacturer. Structural firefighter's protective clothing is not effective with these materials. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing at the site. CALL CHEMTREC AT 1-800-424-9300 AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, especially if there is no local hazardous materials team available. Fire: Small Fires: Dry chemical, CO2, Halon, water spray or standard foam. Large Fires: Water spray, fog or standard foam is recommended. Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fight fire from maximum distance. Stay away from ends of tanks. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Spill or Leak: Do not touch spilled material; stop leak if you can do it without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Small Spills: Take up with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into containers for later disposal. Small Dry Spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover; move containers from spill area. Large Spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. First Aid: Move victim to fresh air and call emergency medical care; if not breathing, give artificial respiration; if breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact with material, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. Speed in removing material from skin is of extreme importance. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes at the site. Keep victim quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Effects may be delayed; keep victim under observation. If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use "alcohol" foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Keep run-off watter out of sewers and water sources. /Endosulfan mixture, other than liquid, agricultural insecticides, not elsewhere specified/ Wear self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material. /Endosulfan mixture, other than liquid, agricultural insecticides not elsewhere specified/ If spilled on clothing and allowed to remain may cause smarting and reddening of skin. EQUPMENT: During commercial or prolonged exposure, /wear/ clean clothing fastened at neck and wrists for dust protection, change clothing daily; /Wear/ synthetic rubber gloves, MSHA/NIOSH approved mask or respirator. ... Wear chemical protective gloves, boots, and goggles. /Endosulfan mixture, other than liquid, agricultural insecticides, not elsewhere specified/ Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. Do not handle broken packages without protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If contact with the material anticipated, wear full protective clothing. /Endosulfan mixture, other than liquid, agricultural insecticides, not elsewhere specified/ Provide general ventilation plus local exhaust at point of potential fume emission. Protect emulsifible concentrate from freezing. Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. All contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning. STABLE TO SUNLIGHT ... COMPATIBLE WITH NON-ALKALINE PESTICIDES BUT SUBJECT TO SLOW HYDROLYSIS TO THE DIOL & SULFUR DIOXIDE. Endosulfan is stable to sunlight but is susceptible to oxidation and the formation of endosulfan sulfate in the presence of growing vegetation. [R6] SHIP: No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./ [R7] STORAGE: Storage temperature greater than 20 deg F CLEANUP: A PROCESS FOR REMOVING POLLUTANTS FROM DU PONT'S CHAMBERS WORKS PLANT IN DEEPWATER, NJ IS DESCRIBED. THE PROCESS CALLS FOR THE TREATMENT OF WASTES FROM ORG CHEM MFG PROCESSES BY NEUTRALIZATION AND SETTLING, FOLLOWED BY A COMBINED POWDERED CARBON-BIOL PROCESS. REMOVAL OF METALS AND NON-METALS FROM WASTEWATER IS DESCRIBED. ENDOSULFAN ISOMERS ARE LISTED AS PRIORITY POLLUTANTS. [R8] Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be contained with a flexible impermeable membrane liner./ Cover solids with plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water /Endosulfan mixture, other than liquid, agricultural insecticides, not elsewhere specified/ Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barrier to trap material at bottom. If dissolved, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates or greater concentration. /Endosulfan mixture, agricultural insecticides, other than liquid, not elsewhere specified/ DISPOSAL: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration with a temperature range of 820-1600 deg C with a residence time for liquids and gases: seconds; Solids: hours. [R9] Group I Containers: Combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) should be disposed of in pesticide incinerators or in specified landfill sites. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/ [R10] Group II Containers: Non-combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) must first be triple-rinsed. Containers that are in good condition may be returned to the manufacturer or formulator of the pesticide product, or to a drum reconditioner for reuse with the same type of pesticide product, if such reuse is legal under Department of Transportation regulations (eg 49 CFR 173.28). Containers that are not to be reused should be punctured ... and transported to a scrap metal facility for recycling, disposal or burial in a designated landfill. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/ [R11] Endosulfan is a sulfur-containing cmpd and unlike most of the hexachlorocyclopentadiene family, sensitive to moisture, bases, and acids. It is slowly hydrolyzed to give sulflur dioxide and the corresponding diol C7Cl6(CH2OH)2. Endosulfan is said to give calcium sulfate with lime. Endosulfan is stable in sunlight. A recommended method for disposal is burial 0.5 m deep in noncrop land away from water supplies, but bags can be burned. Recommendable methods: Alkaline hydrolysis, landfill & incineration. Peer-review: Large amt should be incinerated @ high temp in a unit with effluent gas scrubbing. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC expert consultation (May 1985)) Consider the points of attack /CNS, liver, kidneys, skin/ in preplacement and periodic physical exam. SYSTEMIC POISONING CAUSES NERVOUSNESS, AGITATION, TREMORS, & CONVULSIONS. A 70 YR OLD WOMAN DIED ABOUT 3 HR AFTER SHE HAD TAKEN ONLY "DROPS" OF AN ENDOSULFAN FORMULATION FOR STOMACH PAINS ... THE CLINICAL PICTURE ... INVOLVED GAGGING, VOMITING, DIARRHEA, AGITATION, TONIC CLONIC CONVULSIONS, FOAMING AT THE MOUTH, DYSPNEA, APNEA, CYANOSIS, & LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS. NINE WORKERS SUFFERED ONE OR MORE CONVULSIONS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ENDOSULFAN MAINLY IN CONNECTION WITH BAGGING 50% WATER WETTABLE POWDER. FIVE OF THE MEN WERE SAID TO HAVE USED A RESPIRATOR & PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; TWO DID NOT USE A RESPIRATOR, & THE PRACTICES OF THE OTHERS WERE UNKNOWN. SIX OF THE MEN HAD NO HISTORY OF A PREVIOUS SEIZURE, & NO HISTORY OF ANY SORT WAS AVAILABLE FOR THE OTHERS. IN THE ONLY THREE OF THESE CASES DESCRIBED ... PRODROMAL SYMPTOMS (MALAISE, VOMITING, DIZZINESS, WEAKNESS, OR CONFUSION) BEGAN WHILE THE MAN WAS AT WORK & SEVERAL HR BEFORE THE FIRST SEIZURE, WHICH SOMETIMES OCCURRED AT HOME OR ON THE STREET. AT LEAST IN ONE INSTANCE, A CONVULSION WAS FOLLOWED BY UNCONSCIOUSNESS LASTING AN HR; THE SEIZURE WAS SO VIOLENT, THAT IT RESULTED IN FRACTURES OF THE FOURTH & FIFTH DORSAL VERTEBRAE. ONE PATIENT REMAINED CONFUSED FOR ABOUT 24 HR & THEN RECOVERED RAPIDLY. /IN/ THREE CASES ... ASSOCIATED WITH FILLING BAGS WITH FRESHLY GROUND ENDOSULFAN POWDER ... THE OUTSTANDING PRODROMAL SYMPTOM WAS HEADACHE, & THE INITIAL SIGN WAS FAINTING. THE FAINTING WAS ASSOCIATED WITH OR FOLLOWED BY EPILEPTOID TWITCHING & FOAM AT THE MOUTH. ONE MAN BIT HIS TONGUE, BUT APPARENTLY A FULL CONVULSION DID NOT DEVELOP. EEG CHANGES THAT PROMPTLY REVERTED TO NORMAL ACCOMPANIED THE ILLNESS. A MAN WAS EMPLOYED BY A CHEMICAL PLANT WHERE HIS MAIN ASSIGNMENT WAS CLEANING VATS CONTAINING RESIDUES OF ENDOSULFAN. ... HE FAINTED SEVERAL TIMES ... CONVULSION /NOTED/ DURING SLEEP. HIS CONSCIOUSNESS WAS CLOUDED BUT VITAL SIGNS NORMAL. THE PATIENT RECEIVED DIAZEPAM & APPEARED TO RECOVER RAPIDLY ... AT HOME HIS FAMILY FOUND HIM DISORIENTED & OCCASIONALLY AGITATED OR ABUSIVE. THE AGITATION WAS ESSENTIALLY ELIMINATED BY PHENOTHIAZINE TRANQUILIZERS, BUT /HE/ ... COULD NOT CONVERSE EXCEPT FOR ANSWERING SIMPLE QUESTIONS. ... HE WAS OCCASIONALLY INCONTINENT OF URINE. HUMAN LYMPHOID CELLS OF LAZ-007 CELL LINE, INCUBATED WITH 1X10-4 TO 1X10-6 MOLAR OF 8 DIFFERENT ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES HAD DOSE RELATED CYTOTOXICITY, MITOTIC DEPRESSION AND CELL CYCLE TRAVERSE INHIBITION. THE FREQUENCY OF M3 METAPHASES IN CULTURES INCUBATED WITH 1X10-6 MOLAR CONCN WERE 15% FOR ENDOSULFAN COMPARED TO 17% IN CONTROL CULTURES. STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT INCR IN SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE FREQUENCY WAS SEEN IN CELLS EXPOSED TO ENDOSULFAN. [R12] SYMPTOMATOLOGY: (Onset of symptoms between 20 min and 12 hr after ingestion): 1. Malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and tremors. 2. Clonic and tonic convulsions, sometimes without premonitory symptoms. 3. Convulsive episodes may alternate with periods of severe central nervous depression. Death from respiratory arrest may occur during coma, which commonly outlasts the convulsive phase and may persist for a few days. 4. During the acute phase, leukocytosis, rise in blood pressure, tachycardia, arrhythmias, metabolic acidosis, and fever have been described; Presumably they represent the consequences of hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. 5. Disturbances of sleep, memory and behavior may persist for several days or weeks after the acute phase of ... poisoning. 6. Generalized cerebral dysrhythmia persisting for months, and both hematuria and albuminuria of about 2 weeks duration have been described in one aldrin poisoning in man. Transient hematuria occurred on the second day of an acute dieldrin poisoning. /Dieldrin/ IN ITS ACUTE TOXIC ACTION ENDOSULFAN IS SIMILAR TO DIELDRIN BUT POSSIBLY LESS TOXIC THAN ENDRIN. AS DUST ... IS PROBABLY ONLY MODERATELY TOXIC BY INHALATION, BUT IN SOLN, ESP IN ALCOHOL OR AROMATIC SOLVENTS LIKE XYLENE, IT IS CONSIDERED TOXIC BY INGESTION & BY PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION ... . STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE CONTENTS, BLOOD, LIVER, KIDNEY & URINE OF A 28 YR OLD MAN, WERE ANALYZED FOR RESIDUES OF ENDOSULFAN. THE ANALYSIS RESULTS SHOWED THE PRESENCE OF HIGH CONCN OF THE TWO ENDOSULFAN ISOMERS IN ALL SAMPLES. SINCE ALCOHOL WAS ALSO PRESENT IN ALL THE TISSUES ANALYZED, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE VICTIM DIED OF A COMBINED ENDOSULFAN-ALCOHOL POISONING. [R13] ... DOGS SHOWED SIGNS OF CMPD EFFECT AT 200 & 500 MG/KG /ACUTE ORAL/. LEVELS INCLUDE SALIVATION, EMESIS & GENERALIZED TONIC & CLONIC CONVULSIONS. DOGS WHICH VOMITED RECOVERED. NO CONSISTENT CMPD RELATED RESPONSES WERE SEEN AT ANY OF THE LOWER LEVELS. CHRONIC /EXPOSURE/ ... ORAL RAT UP TO 30 PPM /IN THE DIET/ FOR 2 YR NO SYMPTOMS. ABOUT 8 G OF ENDOSULFAN KILLED CATTLE WITHIN 15 HR. A DOSE OF 8 MG/KG DAILY FOR 2 DAYS PRODUCED SYMPTOMS OF POISONING IN SHEEP. CATTLE ACCIDENTALLY SPRAYED WITH 0.1% EMULSION ... SHOWED LISTLESSNESS, STAGGERING, HYPEREXCITABILITY, EXAGGERATED GAIT & CONVULSIONS, 20% OF THE AFFECTED ANIMALS DYING. IN SOME CASES THERE WAS A 48 HR DELAY BEFORE ONSET OF SIGNS. ACUTE /ORAL/ SYMPTOMS /FOR MALE MALLARDS 3-4 MONTHS OLD/: ... HIGH CARRIAGE, WINGS CROSSED HIGH OVER BACK, TAIL POINTED DOWN ... TREMORS (POSSIBLY SHIVERING) ... FALLING ... SYMPTOMS OCCURRED AS SOON AS 10 MIN AFTER TREATMENT & PERSISTED UP TO A MONTH IN A FEW ANIMALS. ENDOSULFAN WAS ADMIN ORALLY TO MALE ALBINO RATS AT 0, 11, 22, 36, OR 55 MG/KG DAILY FOR 5 DAYS. THE HIGHEST DOSES WERE ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL SIGNS OF INSECTICIDE POISONING & DEATH. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF BONE MARROW CELLS & SPERMATOGONIAL CELLS DID NOT REVEAL ANY SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON CHROMOSOMES. THE MITOTIC INDEX & FREQUENCY OF CHROMATID BREAK IN THE TWO CELL TYPES HAD NO CORRELATION WITH THE DOSES TESTED & WERE NOT DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF THE CONTROL GROUP. [R14] A SUDDEN FISH KILL IN THE UITHOORNSE POLDER WAS ATTRIBUTED TO A DISCHARGE OF ENDOSULFAN INTO THE WATER. THE ENDOSULFAN CONTENT IN THE WATER FELL FROM 30.9 TO 0.01-6.5 UG/L IN 4 DAYS OWING TO ABSORPTION ONTO MUD. THE ENDOSULFAN CONTENT OF THE DEAD FISH WAS GREATER THAN 200 MG/KG ON A FAT BASIS. [R15] ENDOSULFAN INTERFERES WITH ENERGY METABOLISM IN VIVO OF THE FRESH WATER TELEOST FISH, CHANA GACHUA, FOLLOWING CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS. THE MARKED SENSITIVITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL MAGNESIUM(2+) ATPASE TO ENDOSULFAN IS SUGGESTIVE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR ENDOSULFAN TO INTERFERE MARKEDLY WITH VARIOUS ENERGY REQUIRING PROCESSES IN THE FISH BODY. [R16] ... GIVEN ORALLY ON DAYS 6 THROUGH 14 IN DOSES OF 5 & 10 MG/KG TO RATS ... NO SOFT TISSUE DEFECTS WERE FOUND. SOME DELAYED OSSIFICATION OCCURRED WITH TREATMENT. ... ATAXIA ... /WHICH/ PROGRESSED TO COMPLETE INABILITY TO STAND BUT NEVER INVOLVED OBSERVED CONVULSIONS WAS REPORTED IN PIGS & LAMBS THAT GRAZED IN A FIELD THAT HAD BEEN SPRAYED WITH ENDOSULFAN. ... BLINDNESS ... WAS OBSERVED IN SHEEP ... ONSET OF BLINDNESS WAS DELAYED 1 WK AFTER FIRST EXPOSURE TO PASTURE SPRAYED WITH ENDOSULFAN; SOME RECOVERY WAS NOTED AFTER AN ADDITIONAL 2 WK, WITH FULL RECOVERY AT THE END OF THE MONTH. TECHNICAL GRADE ENDOSULFAN WAS ADMIN IN THE FEED: 952 AND 408 PPM FOR 50 MALE RATS, 445 AND 223 PPM FOR 50 FEMALE RATS, 6.9 AND 3.5 PPM FOR 50 MALE MICE, & 3.9 AND 2.0 PPM FOR 50 FEMALE MICE. THE CMPD WAS ADMIN FOR 74 WK (HIGH DOSE MALE RATS), 82 WK (LOW DOSE MALE RATS), OR 78 WK (FEMALE RATS & ALL MICE). AFTER AN ADDNL OBSERVATION PERIOD OF 33 WK (FEMALE RATS) OR 14 WK (MICE), THE ANIMALS WERE SACRIFICED. CARCINOGENICITY COULD NOT BE EVALUATED IN MALE RATS & MICE BECAUSE OF THE HIGH MORTALITY RATE EARLY IN THE STUDY. ENDOSULFAN WAS NOT CARCINOGENIC IN FEMALE RATS OR MICE UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE BIOASSAY. [R17] THE MUTAGENICITIES OF VARIOUS PESTICIDES WERE TESTED IN MICE VIA THE MICRONUCLEUS TEST WITH 1/3 LD50 DOSES OF EACH CMPD. WHEN MICE WERE ADMIN ENDOSULFAN (43.3 MG/KG) IN STERILE DISTILLED WATER IN 2 DOSES SEPARATED BY A 24 HR INTERVAL, NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI OCCURRED. [R18] THE PORPHYRINOGENIC ABILITY OF 4 PESTICIDES WAS INVESTIGATED IN 17 DAY OLD CHICK EMBRYO LIVER IN OVO. ENDOSULFAN PROMOTED REMARKABLE INCR IN HEPATIC PORPHYRIN ACCUMULATION. WHEN DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID SYNTHETASE ACTIVITY WAS ANALYZED IN THE CHICK EMBRYOS NO ALTERATION COULD BE FOUND IN SPITE OF PRODUCING NOTICEABLE ACCUM OF PORPHYRINS. [R19] THE RELATIVE TOXICITY /SRP: LC50 IN A CONTINUOUS-FLOW SYSTEM/ OF TECH ENDOSULFAN, ITS ISOMERS ENDOSULFAN A AND B, AND 2 FORMULATED PRODUCTS (35% EC AND 4% DUST) TO LABEO ROHITA DECR IN THE ORDER: ENDOSULFAN A GREATER THAN EC GREATER THAN ENDOSULFAN GREATER THAN DUST GREATER THAN ENDOSUFAN B IN A 96 HR EXPOSURE. ENDOSULFAN A WAS APPROX 20 TIMES MORE TOXIC THAN ENDOSULFAN B. /ENDOSULFAN A AND B/ [R20] ENDOSULFAN WAS TESTED FOR ITS ABILITY TO INDUCE MUTATION, MITOTIC CROSSING OVER, AND GENE CONVERSION IN THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. TREATMENT OF CELLS WITH 1.0% DID NOT INDUCE MITOTIC CROSSOVERS BUT REDUCED SURVIVAL AND INCR THE % OF ABERRANT COLONIES AS WELL AS THE FREQUENCY OF GENE CONVERTANTS AND REVERTANTS OVER CONTROLS TREATED WITH 10% ACETONE. ENDOSULFAN WAS NOT ONLY TOXIC TO YEAST CELLS BUT ALSO GENETICALLY EFFECTIVE WITHOUT ACTIVATION. THE GENOTOXIC EFFECTS WERE MORE PRONOUNCED WITH INCR DURATION OF CELL EXPOSURE. [R21] 228 PESTICIDES INCL ENDOSULFAN WERE TESTED FOR MUTAGENICITY IN BACTERIAL REVERSION-ASSAY SYSTEMS WITH 5 STRAINS (TA100, TA98, TA1535, TA1537 AND TA1538) OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM AND A STRAIN (WP2 HCR) OF ESCHERICHIA COLI. ENDOSULFAN TESTED NEGATIVE IN EACH SYSTEM. [R22] ... Concentrations of 0.035 to 0.14% were phytotoxic to all but one species of Cucurbitae. Phytotoxicity was estimated by necrotic spots on the leaves. [R23] Endosulfan reduced the germination of cucumber pollen to 54.6% of control levels at a concn of 1000 mg active ingredient/l, half of the recommended concn for field use. At the same concn pollen tube length was 8.1% of controls. [R24] ... Exposure of germinating Cicerarietinum seeds to endosulfan resulted in a fall in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contents of cell walls at all stages of germination compared with untreated controls. [R25] Vingna radiata (green gram) was exposed to four concentrations of endosulfan between 0.35 g/kg and 3 g/kg. Toxic effects were dose dependent. At 0.35 g/kg and 0.7 g/kg, no adverse effects were observed in any of the parameters studied. ... At higher concentrations of 1.5 g/kg and 3 g/kg, symptoms of toxicity ... included coiling of radical, inhibition of root growth, stunting of shoots, burning of root growth, and burning of the tips and margins of the leaves. Plants were dwarfed and chlorotic, having damaged pollen grains and low productivity. [R26] The harbor seal population in the Dutch Wadden Sea decreased significantly and its pup production was low compared to the more stable population in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and a correlation was made associating an assumed inverse trend of contaminant residue levels in seal tissues. Dead stranded animals are collected in both areas and blubber, liver, brain and kidney are analyzed for ... endosulfan. ... High levels of all contaminants /including endosulfan were found/. [R27] Eight insecticides were identified from 43 samples of honey bees (Apis mellifera) obtained from 35 beekeepers in 1981 and 1982. A total of 268 colonies were documented to have been contaminated from May through early October. Insecticides detected in honey bees included endosulfan, chlordane, malathion, diazinon, and acephate. [R28] Two studies have been undertaken on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of endosulfan, a chlorinated cyclodiene - the NCI Endosulfan Rat Study and the NCI Endosulfan Mouse Study. Histological sections have been examined and the results of this review are based on diagnosis. Endosulfan is highly toxic for male and female Osborne-Mendel rats, particularly for male rats. The chemical causes interstitial fibrosis or acute tubular necrosis of the kidney and death. These lesions, as well as atrophy of the testes, polyarteritis, parathyroid hyperplasia, osteitis fibrosis of bone, and abscesses of the lung, interfere with health of the animals. [R29] FORTY-EIGHT HR LC50 VALUES FOR ENDOSULFAN & ITS METABOLITES, INCLUDING ENDOSULFAN SULFATE, WERE DETERMINED IN 11 MARINE FISH, INSECTS, MOLLUSKS, CRUSTACEANS, & TUBIFEX TUBIFEX. THE ESPECIALLY HIGH TOXICITY TO FISH WAS DECREASED BY METABOLIC REMOVAL OF SULFUR FROM THE MOLECULE TO A LEVEL IN THE SAME RANGE AS FOR THE INVERTEBRATES (LC50 1-10 PPM). [R30] Fish were 1x10+4 times more sensitive to endosulfan and its metabolites than worms and snails. The increasing order of sensitivity was worms 30% of the applied C-14 labeled endosulfan(2). Endosulfate was the major metabolite formed by the fungi, and endodiol was the predominant product of bacteria(2). Only a small amount of C-14 labeled carbon dioxide was detected, indicating minimal mineralization(2). Controls showed that chemical hydrolysis was only significant in a limited number of cultures. [R72] Half-life values for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan exposed to mixed cultures from a sandy loam soil incubated at 20 deg C were 1.1 and 2.2 weeks(1). The contribution of hydrolysis to this result was not determined(1). Interconversion of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan was observed and the metabolic pathway was determined to proceed through the endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan diol, endosulfan alpha-hydroxyether and finally to endosulfan lactone(1). [R73] Under anaerobic conditions, endosulfan sulfate was the major product (11-22%), with some endodiol (2.9%) and endolactone (1.9%). In flooded samples, the products were endosulfan sulfate (3.0-8.2%), endodiol (2.3-18.4%) and endohydroxyether (1.8-4.3%). The incubation temperature was not given(1). [R74] THE PHOTOLYSIS OF ENDOSULFAN WAS EXAM UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS. TWO NEW PHOTOMETABOLITES, PHOTO-ALPHA-ENDOSULFAN AND PHOTO-BETA-ENDOSULFAN WERE ISOLATED FROM ALPHA- AND BETA-ENDOSULFAN, RESPECTIVELY. IRRADIATION IN POLAR SOLVENTS GIVES METABOLITES FORMED UNDER BIOTIC CONDITIONS. WHEN EXPOSED TO SUNLIGHT ON PLANT LEAVES, ALPHA-ENDOSULFAN NOT ONLY FORMS THE PHOTOMETABOLITE BUT ALSO UNDERGOES ISOMERIZATION TO THE BETA-ISOMER. THE BETA-ISOMER IS RELATIVELY MORE STABLE. [R75] The following experiments were conducted in the presence of oxygen to measure the rate of oxidation and hydrolysis, and anaerobically, to measure the rate of hydrolysis alone(1). At 20 deg C, hydrolysis rate constants of 19.6X10-3 and 18.5X10-3 l/day at pH 7 and 4.6X10-3 and 3.7X10-3 l/day at pH 5.5 were measured for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively(1). Hydrolysis half-lives of 35.4 and 37.5 days for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan at pH 7 and 150.6 and 187.3 days for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan at pH 5.5 were calulated from these rate constants(SRC). In the presence of ferric hydroxide, a higher rate of hydrolysis was observed at pH 7 and 20 deg C. In a solution of ferric hydroxide, the rate constants of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were 5.73X10-2 and 4.48X10-2 l/day, respectively(1). Hydrolysis half-lives of 12.1 and 15.5 days were calculated from these rate constants for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively(SRC). Hydrolysis was facilitated by the adsorption of the isomers onto ferric hydroxide gel. Observed rate constants were 8.27X10-2 and 7.37X10-2 l/day for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively(1). Hydrolysis half-lives of 8.4 and 9.4 days were calculated from these values for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively(SRC). The rates of oxidation of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were measured at 20 deg C(1). At pH 7, oxidation rate constants for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were 10.4X10-3 and 9.7X10-3 l/day, respectively(1). At pH 5.5, the rate constants were 8.3X10-3 and 9.9X10-3 l/day for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respctively(1). Half-life values of 66.6 and 71.4 days at pH 7 and 83.5 and 70 days at pH 5.5 were calculated for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively(SRC). After exposure to a pH 7.5 solution for 21 and 130 days, approximately 50% and 70% of the initial amount of alpha-endosulfan and approximately 65% and 70% of the initial beta-endosulfan had degraded, respectively(2). The pH dependence experiments were conducted at 19-21 deg C. At 20 deg C, half-life values for alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan in a sterile, mineral salts medium with a pH of 6.5 were 12.5 and 5.7 weeks, respectively(3). Irradiation at > 300 nm of a hexane solution of alpha-endosulfan and a dioxane-water solution of beta-endosulfan resulted in partial dechlorination of the isomers(4,5). Irradiation of a thin film of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan using germicidal lamps (254 nm) produced mainly endosulfandiol(6). The alpha-hydroxy ether, lactone and ether of endosulfan were produced in lesser amounts(6). [R76] Persistence in river water in a sealed glass jar under sunlight and artificial fluorescent light initial concentration: 10 ug/l; after 1 hr: 100%; 1 wk: 30%; 2 wk: 5%; 4 wk: 0%; 8 wk: 0%. THE /ENDOSULFAN/ ALPHA AND BETA ISOMERS ARE RAPIDLY OXIDIZED BY PEROXIDES OR PERMANGANATE TO ENDOSULFAN SULFATE MP 181 DEG C. /ALPHA AND BETA-ISOMERS/ THE /ENDOSULFAN/ ALPHA AND BETA-ISOMERS ARE SLOWLY CONVERTED TO THE MORE STABLE BETA-FORM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND BOTH ISOMERS ARE SLOWLY OXIDIZED IN AIR AND IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. After 96 hr, combined residues of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan and their metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, had concentrated by 81-245X, 1046-1,299X, 620-895X and 1000-1344X in grass shrimp, pinfish, spot, and striped mullet, respectively(1). After 28 days, the combined residues had concentrated 2249X and 2755X in edible tissues and whole fish, respectively(1). Mean endosulfan residues in two species of mussels exposed to the chemical for 36 days were 2.75X and 2.85X the level in water(2). Prior to 36 days, no beta-endosulfan was detected. The authors suggested this was due to the differential uptake of the isomers. Endosulfan accumulated 600X in the Pelecypod, Mytilus edulis after 50 hr(3). From these results, bioconcentration of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan and the metabolite endosulfan sulfate may be somewhat significant in aqueous species(SRC). [R77] KOC: After 60 days at 45 deg C, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan did not leach below 17 cm in Gezira soil from the Sudan(1). From 0-64% and 5-82% of applied alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, respectively, were recovered from a variety of soils ranging from clays to sands upon elution with up to 1600 ml of water(2). The higher recoveries were associated with the sands. The results indicated that the higher the organic content of the soils, the greater the resistance to leaching(2). A higher percentage of beta-endosulfan than alpha-endosulfan was recoverable from the soils in general(2). Using a measured octanol/water partition coefficient of 3.83(3), a log soil-sorption coefficient (Koc) of 3.46 was estimated for alpha-endosulfan(4,SRC). A Koc of this magnitude suggests that alpha-endosulfan will be relatively immobile in soil(5) and little migration of alpha-endosulfan to groundwater is expected(SRC). Using a measured water solubility of 0.45 mg/l for beta-endosulfan(6), a Koc of 3.83 was estimated(4,SRC). As above, this suggests that beta-endosulfan will be relatively immobile in soil(SRC). [R78] The alpha-Endosulfan isomer disappears more rapidly from soil than beta-endosulfan (ie, the relative quantity of the beta-isomer increases dramatically after prolonged weathering). Endosulfan residues in soil nearly one year after the last foliar application at 0.67-0.84 kg/ha contained less than 0.05 mg/kg (soil) of the alpha-isomer but up to 0.22 mg/kg (soil) of the beta-isomer. Residues of endosulfan sulfate, ... were as high as 1.06 mg/kg (soil). Under some conditions, the amount of endosulfan sulfate formed was approximately equal to the amount of alpha and beta-isomers lost. The sulfate is reported to remain in the soil for a number of seasons. [R79] Using a measured water solubility of 0.51 mg/l(1) and a vapor pressure of 1.3X10-8 atm(2) for alpha-endosulfan, the volatilization half-lives of the compound from model streams, rivers and lakes were estimated. The estimated Henry's Law constant is 1.04X10-5 atm cu m/mol(3,SRC). The lakes were assumed to be 50 m deep and the rivers and streams 1 m deep. The wind velocity was assumed to be 3 m/s and the current velocities of the streams, rivers and lakes were assumed to be 2, 1 and 0.01 m/s, respectively. The half-lives for streams, rivers and lakes were estimated to be 5.7, 7.2 and 304 days, respectively(2,SRC). Using a measured water solubility of 0.45 mg/l(1) and a vapor pressure of 1.3X10-8 atm (2) for beta-endosulfan and the same parameters listed above, volatilization half-lives for streams, rivers and lakes were estimated to be 5.0, 6.4 and 303 days, respectively(3,SRC). The estimated Henry's Law constant for beta-endosulfan is 1.18X10-5 atm cu m/mol(3,SRC). It should be noted that these half-life values apply strictly to the dissolved isomers of endosulfan. Any process which would limit the free solubility of the compounds, such as adsorption to sediments and biota, will increase the half-lives. No information regarding the volatilization of the endosulfan isomers from the soil were available. Due to the high measured and estimated soil-sorption coefficients of the isomers, however, little volatilization from soil is expected(SRC). [R80] SURFACE WATER: A SURVEY OF 11 AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS LOCATED IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO REVEALED THAT 81 PESTICIDES WERE APPLIED ON FARMS AND RIGHTS-OF-WAY DURING 1975. BETWEEN MAY 1975-APRIL 1977, STREAM WATER DRAINING THE 11 WATERSHEDS WAS ANALYZED FOR 61 PARENT PESTICIDAL CMPD (PLUS 4 ISOMERS), 13 METABOLITES AND 2 INDUST ORG POLLUTANTS. ONLY ATRAZINE, ENDOSULFAN AND SIMAZINE PERSISTED LONG ENOUGH TO APPEAR IN WATER THROUGHOUT THE YR. FIVE OF THE CHEM EXCEEDED THE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA ESTABLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION FOR LAKE AND STREAM WATERS ENTERING THE GREAT LAKES. THESE 5 INCL ENDOSULFAN IN 14% OF THE WATER SAMPLES. [R69] SURFACE WATER: Federal Republic of Germany - April 1970-June 1971, 10-100 ng/l alpha-endosulfan, 20-95 ng/l beta-endosulfan(1). Lower Niagara River - 0.1 ng/l avg for both alpha-endosulfan, 13% pos, and beta-endosulfan, 15% pos(2). Rhine River - < 0.01 ug/l for both alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan(3). Meuse River (Holland)-Alpha-endosulfan, 0.09, 0.03 and 0.01 ppb in 1969, 1970 and 1973, respectively(4). Rhine River- alpha-endosulfan, 0.81 (1969), 0.40 (1970), 0.25 (1971), 0.03 (1972), 0.10 (1973), 0.02 (1974), 0.02 (1975), and 0.03 (1976) ppb(4). Rhine River - beta-endosulfan, 0.24 and 0.03 ppb in 1969 and 1970, respectively(4). The detection limit in these studies was 0.01 ppb(4). Gila river (Arizona) - 1970, 0.02 ppb unspecified as to isomer(5). The mean alpha-endosulfan concentration in raw water extracts of samples taken from various water treatment plants in Pennsylvania and West Virginia ranged from 0.1-0.6 ppb and maximum concentrations from 0.1-0.9(6). Ohio River - 9-24.5% pos, < 0.1-0.2 ppb unspecified as to isomer(7). Four of 106 samples were greater than or equal to 0.1 ppb. Ohio River tributaries - 16.7-44.4% pos, < 0.1-0.9 ppb unspecified as to isomer(7). Rhine River - 0.02-0.33, alpha-endosulfan, 0.2-0.19 ppb beta-endosulfan(8). The concentrations increased the deeper the samples and the greater the amount of silt present(8). Niagara River - surface microlayer, ND-0.0204 ppb, alpha-endosulfan(9). In May 1980, alpha-endosulfan was detected in Inner Harbor Navigation Canal water at Lake Pontchartrain, New Orleans, LA at an average concn of 0.8 ng/l for 8 samples at ebb tide and at concn of 3.0 and 0.9 ng/l for individual samples at flood tide(10). Endosulfan was detected in 1 of 4 samples at a concn of 0.1 ug/l for Swedish stream waters in Apr 1985-7(11). Of 1400 surface water samples taken across W. Canada in 1973, beta-endosulfan was detected once in the Souris River, Manitoba at a concn of 0.011 ug/L(12). In 1981-85, water from the Grand River, Ontario, Canada contained endosulfan in 5 samples for 4.8% of the total with an average concn of 0.009 ug/l(13). In 1981-85, water from the Grand River, Ontario, Canada contained endosulfan in 9 samples for 4.5% of the total with an average concn of 0.018 ug/l(13). [R81] DRINKING WATER: Endosulfan was found at 0.04 ug/l in drinking water from an unspecified source(1). Twenty-four of 154 finished water extracts contained unspecified amounts of alpha-endosulfan(2). [R82] GROUNDWATER: Samples of well water from sites in California contained alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, but no quantitative data were presented(1). [R83] RAIN/SNOW: Samples of unspecified precipitation collected in the Great Lakes ecosystem contained alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan concentrations of 1-10 and 1-12 parts per trillion, respectively, and mean concentrations of 2 and 3 parts per trillion, respectively(1). The concentration of alpha-endosulfan in precipitation from Canada ranged from 0.001-0.116 ppb and that of beta-endosulfan from 0.001-0.031 ppb(2). Mean concentrations of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were 3.8 and 12.0 parts per trillion in 16 samples from Lake Ontario, 1.6 and 2.0 parts per trillion in 7 samples from Lake Erie, 0.1-2.1 in 13 samples from the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron and 0.2 and 1.0 parts per trillion in Lake Superior, respectively(3). The mean concentration of beta-endosulfan in snow from eastern and central Ontario was 0.1 parts per trillion. The detection limit of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan was 1 parts per trillion(3), however, mean concentrations less than this are suspect(SRC). Concentrations of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan in rain/snow samples collected in rural and urban areas were 1-10 parts per trillion. The median alpha-endosulfan in the rural samples was 2 parts per trillion and the median beta-endosulfan concentration in rural and urban samples were 3 and 2-5 parts per trillion, respectively(4). [R84] EFFL: Industrial effluents contained a median technical endosulfan concentration of 0.010 ppb, and 14 of 44 samples (31.8%) were positive. The median alpha-endosulfan concentration was < 0.010 ppb with 10 of the 628 samples (1.6%) pos and the median beta-endosulfan concentration was < 0.010 ppb and 6.3 of 630 samples (1.0%) were pos(1). These values are from the STORET database. Endosulfan residues in treated wastewater effluents from a variety of industries were as follows(2): For alpha-endosulfan, aluminum forming - 17 samples, 29.4% pos, 0.01-28 ppb, 6.2 avg; foundries - 2 samples, 100% pos, 5 ppb avg; nonferrous metals manufacturing - not detected-0.6 ppb, 0.2 ppb avg(2). For beta-endosulfan, foundries - 7 samples, 100% pos, 5 ppb avg; nonferrous metals manufacturing - not detected-0.2 ppb, 0.1 ppb avg; paint and ink formulation - 10 ppb max(2). URBAN RUNOFF: Samples of urban runoff from Washington, DC and Bellevue, WA contained from 0.1-0.2 ppb alpha-endosulfan(4). AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF: Concentrations of unspecified isomers of endosulfan in soil, water and silted water associated with runoff ranged from not detected-7.35 ppm, not detected-22.5 ppm, and not detected-132.5 ppm, respectively in 1968(3). The samples were taken in Presque Isle, ME(5). Runoff samples from Presque Isle, ME contained from trace-19 ppb endosulfan (isomer unspecified)(6). Water samples from 11 agricultural watersheds in Ontario were 20% pos for endosulfan (unspecified isomer) with a mean concentration of 3.7 parts per trillion and a maximum concentration of 173 parts per trillion in 1975-76(6). In 1976-77, the samples were 18.5% pos, with a mean concentration of 2.0 parts per trillion and a maximum concentration of 52 parts per trillion(7). [R85] SEDIMENTS: Lower Niagara River - suspended sediments, alpha-endosulfan, 36% pos, 4 ng/g avg, beta-endosulfan, 4% pos, < 1 ng/g avg(1). Suspended solids from surface waters in the Federal Republic of Germany - suspended solids, 22-24 ng/l alpha-endosulfan, 9.6 ng/l beta-endosulfan(2). Bed load (detritus and sediment) and bottom material samples collected from Big Creek in Ontario in 1973 contained < 1-3 and < 0.1-0.7 ppb endosulfan, respectively(3). Yawgoo Pond (Rhode Island) - suspended sediments, 5 ppb endosulfan(4). Rhine River - bottom mud, 0.24-0.33 ppb alpha-endosulfan, 0.21-0.33 ppb beta-endosulfan(5). Sheridan Creek (Ontario Canada) - suspended sediments, 15 ppm endosulfan(6). Niagara River - not detected-0.025 ppm alpha-endosulfan and not detected-0.021 ppm beta-endosulfan(7). SOIL: Samples of soil collected from areas in which endosulfan was regularly used contained 0.01-4.63 ppm endosulfan unspecified as to isomer and from 9-32% of the fields tested positive for the chemical(8). Colorado - agricultural soil, 9 samples, 11.1% pos, 0.04 ppm unspecified as to isomer(9). Canadian apple orchard soil (dried) - 0-7.5 cm depth, 0.59-4.51 ppm unspecified as to isomer, 7.5-15 cm depth, not detected (<0.004 ppm) -0.12 ppm; Sour cherry orchard soil (dried) - 0-15 cm depth not detected (<0.0004 ppm)- 0.30 ppm, 0.064 ppm avg, 15-30 cm depth not detected-0.10 ppm, 0.021 ppm avg; Sweet cherry orchard soil (dried) - 0-15 cm depth not detected (< 0.004 ppm)-0.16 ppm, 0.052 ppm avg, 15-30 cm depth not detected-0.041 ppm, 0.009 ppm avg; Peach orchard soil (dried) - 0-15 cm depth 0.75-2.33 ppm, 15-30 cm depth 0.11-0.22 ppm; Peach orchard soil (dried) - 0-15 cm depth not detected (< 0.0004 ppm)-4.93 ppm, 1.27 ppm avg, 15-30 cm depth not detected-0.74 ppm, 0.12 ppm avg; Vineyard soil (dried) - 0-15 cm depth not detected (< 0.0004 ppm)-0.52 ppm, 0.07 ppm avg, 15-30 cm depth not detected-0.11 ppm, 0.02 ppm avg; Vineyard soil (dried) - 0.02 avg(10). California - alpha-endosulfan 1/65 pos, 0.01 ppm max, beta-endosulfan 2/65 pos, 0.04-0.06 ppm range; Michigan - beta-endosulfan 1/54 pos, 0.02 max; New England states - beta-endosulfan 1/20 pos, 0.07 ppm max(11). New England - cropland soil, 0.08 ppm alpha-endosulfan, 0.25 ppm beta-endosulfan(12). [R86] /During 1972 ... a pond near/ Simcoe, Ontario, following aerial application of endosulfan to local tobacco fields ... /the sediments/ contained 0.9 ug/kg (dry weight) of a-endosulfan, 1.0 ug/kg (dry weight) of beta-endosulfan, and 1.1 ug/kg (dry weight) of endosulfan sulfate at the east end of the pond. The west end of the pond contained 1.2 ug/kg (dry weight) of endosulfan sulfate. [R87] Ambient air samples from 14 states taken in 1970 and 16 states taken in 1971-72 were 2.11% positive for alpha-endosulfan with a mean concentration of 111.9 ng/cu m for positive samples and 4.3 ng/cu m for all samples and a maximum value of 2256.6 ng/cu m(1). The samples were 0.32% positive for beta-endosulfan with a mean concentration of 22.0 ng/cu m in the positive samples and 0.1 ng/cu m in all samples with a maximum value of 54.5 ng/cu m(1). Air samples from Columbia, SC maintained a mean endosulfan (isomer unspecified) concentration of 0.078 ng/cu m(2). [R88] FOOD: Average dietary intake 10 ng/kg body weight/day(1) 1971-76. Year - positive composite (%) (daily intake in ug): 1971 - 6.7% (1.0), 1972 - 3.8% (0.2), 1973 - 6.9% (2.0), 1974 - 3.8% (3.0), 1975 - 1.7% (0.1), 1976 - 3.8% (0.8)(1). Large fruits - domestic 3281 samples, 2.9% pos, 0.005 ppm avg (isomer unspecified), imported 1048 samples, 1.9% pos, 0.0008 ppm avg; Small fruits - domestic 1445 samples, 6.2% pos, 0.007 ppm avg, imported 2119 samples, 34% pos, 0.122 ppm avg; Leaf and stem vegetables - domestic 5319 samples, 13.5% pos, 0.031 ppm avg, imported 312 samples, 13.3% pos, 0.444 ppm avg; Vine and ear vegetables - domestic 2954 samples, 3.4% pos, 0.004 ppm avg, imported 4117 samples, 8.3% pos, 0.004 ppm avg; Beans - domestic 499 samples, 1.0% pos, 0.001 ppm avg, imported 365 samples, 11.3% pos, 0.005 ppm avg; Root vegetables - domestic 3248 samples, 1.9% pos, 0.0005 ppm avg, imported 609 samples, 3.0% pos, 0.004 ppm avg; Processed vegetable products - domestic 631 samples, 4.3% pos, 0.002 ppm avg imported 929 samples, 2.4% pos, 0.003 ppm avg; Processed fruit products - domestic 210 samples, 3.7% pos, 0.002 ppm avg, imported 634 samples, 5.6% pos, 0.004 ppm avg(1). Endosulfan was infrequently detected in eggs and egg products, fish, shellfish and hay(1). Seventeen of 240 food composites contained concentrations ranging from 0.001-0.006 ppm and 13 of 240 food composites contained alpha-endosulfan at 0.001-0.006 ppm(2). Average dietary intake of alpha-endosulfan in 1977 - 0.0026 ug/kg body weight/day, 1978 - 0.0025 ug/kg body weight/day(2). Average dietary intake of beta-endosulfan in 1977 - 0.0031 ug/kg body weight/day, 1978 - 0.0034 ug/kg body weight/day(2). One of infant food composites contained 0.002 ppm beta-endosulfan and one contained 0.004 ppm alpha-endosulfan(3). Two of 110 toddler food composites contained from 0.001-0.004 ppm beta-endosulfan(3). Average dietary intake of alpha-endosulfan in toddlers in 1977 and 1978 - 0.0004 and 0.005 ug/kg body weight/day, respectively(3). Average dietary intake of beta-endosulfan in infants in 1978 - 0.0002 ug/kg body weight/day, in toddlers in 1977 - 0.0012 ug/kg body weight/day, in 1978 - 0.0055 ug/kg body weight/day(3). [R89] Alpha-endosulfan was found in 1 of 10 fruit and fruit juice samples for infants at a mean concentration less than 0.0001 ppm, with a range below the detection limit and in 2 of 10 vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0004 ppm, with a range from 0 to 0.004 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(1). Alpha-endosulfan was found in 1 of 20 potato samples for adults at a mean concentration of 0.0003 ppm, with a range from 0 to 0.006 ppm and in 3 of 20 leafy vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0005 ppm, with a range from 0.002 to 0.005 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study(2). Beta-endosulfan was found in 4 of 20 leafy vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0005 ppm, with a range from 0.001 tp 0.006 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study(2). Beta-endosulan was found in 5 of 20 leafy vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0008 ppm, with a range from 0.002 to 0.004 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(3). Beta-endosulfan was found in 1 of 20 legume vegetable samples at a concentration of 0.011 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(3). Alpha-endosulfan was found in 5 of 20 leafy vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0008 ppm, with a range from 0.001 to 0.007 ppm and in 1 of 20 legume vegetable samples at a concn of 0.005 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(3). It was also found in 1 to 13 vegetable samples for infants at a mean concentration of 0.0001 ppm, with a range of 0 to 0.001 ppm an in 3 of 13 potatoe samples at a mean concentration of 0.0002 ppm with a range from 0.001 to 0.002 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(4). Alpha-endosulfan was found in 9 of 27 leafy vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0123 ppm, with a range from 0 to 0.150 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(5). Beta-endosulfan was found in 13 of 27 leafy vegetable samples at a mean concentration of 0.0083 ppm, with a range from 0 to 0.093 ppm (FDA: Total Diet Study)(5). [R90] AFTER SPRAYING ENDOSULFAN (3:2 MIXTURE OF I & II ISOMERS) ON FOLIAGE, ENDOSULFAN I DECR TO 30% OF INITIAL DEPOSIT AFTER 1 WK & TO 2% AFTER 3 WK. ENDOSULFAN II DECREASED TO 47% AFTER 1 WK & TO 2% AFTER 7 WK. ALL LEAF EXTRACTS CONTAINED A MORE PERSISTENT CMPD IDENTIFIED AS ENDOSULFAN SULFATE. 75% OF RESIDUE WAS IN THE FORM OF SULFATE AFTER 3 WK & 90% AFTER 7-11 WK. BURLEY TOBACCO HARVESTED IMMEDIATELY AFTER TREATMENT WITH 0.5 LB/ACRE OF ENDOSULFAN & CURED FOR 4 MONTHS CONTAINED AVERAGE TOTAL ENDOSULFAN RESIDUES OF 23.2 PPM. ON THE TOP LEAVES, ENDOSULFAN I COMPRISED 13%, ENDOSULFAN II 78% & ENDOSULFAN SULFATE 9% OF THE TOTAL. THE SULFATE ACCOUNTED FOR APPROX 20% OF THE TOTAL RESIDUES ON THE MIDDLE & BOTTOM LEAVES, WITH A CORRESPONDING DECREASE IN THE CONCN OF ENDOSULFAN II. [R91] FOR MOST FRUITS & VEGETABLES 50% OF THE RESIDUE IS LOST IN 3-7 DAYS. ON 3 DATES IN JAN, 1977, IN MIAMI, FL, 105 LOTS OF IMPORTED CUT FLOWERS (CARNATIONS, POMPOM CHRYSANTHEMUM, AND STANDARD CHRYSANTHEMUMS) WERE SAMPLED FOR PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION. SIXTEEN PESTICIDES OF VARYING TOXICITY WERE DETECTED; ENDOSULFAN, DIAZINON, AND PHOSPHAMIDON OCCURRED MOST FREQUENTLY. HIGH RESIDUE LEVELS, GREATER THAN 5 PPM, WERE FOUND IN FLOWERS FROM 17 OF THE 43 GROWERS, 16 FROM COLUMBIA AND 1 FROM GUATEMALA. [R92] FISH: Eight of 9 samples of whole body tissue of the clam, Corbicula manilensis taken from the Apalachicola River in Florida had endosulfan residues (isomer unspecified) below the detection limit (<0.1 ppt). The maximum endosulfan concentration was 0.2 ppt.(1). Gulf of Mexico oysters 0.06-0.4 ppm(2). German Wadden sea cockle 0.2-0.3 ppb, soft clam 0.5-0.8 ppb, lugworm 0.3-0.5 ppb, brown shrimp 0.3-0.4 ppb, sole 0.9-1.7 ppb(3). [R93] RESIDUES OF ENDOSULFAN INSECTICIDE (ALPHA & BETA-ISOMERS, AND ENDOSULFAN SULFATE) IN FISH & THEIR PREDATORS WERE MEASURED DURING AND AFTER OPERATION TO CONTROL TSETSE FLY IN THE OKAVANGO DELTA, BOTSWANA. SIX ULV DOSES OF ENDOSULFAN 35% EC (6-12 G AI/HA) WERE APPLIED FROM THE AIR IN A PERIOD OF 12 WK OVER 2500 SQ KM. THE CONCN OF RESIDUES FOUND IN LIVING FISH WAS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.19 MG/KG WET WT IN CAUDAL MUSCLE, & USUALLY 0.8 MG/KG WET WT IN POOLED VISCERA (MAX 2.8 MG/KG). THESE VALUES RETURNED TO NEAR-NORMAL WITHIN 3 MO AFTER CESSATION OF SPRAYING, BUT RESIDUES WERE STILL DETECTABLE AFTER 12 MO. BY COMPARISON, FISH KILLED BY SPRAYING CONTAINED A MAX RESIDUE LEVEL (WHOLE BODY) OF 1.5 MG/KG WET WT. LEAN FISH WERE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO POISONING THAN FAT FISH. RESIDUE LEVELS IN FISH PREDATORS (FISH-EATING BIRDS & CROCODILES) WERE SIMILAR TO THOSE IN THEIR PREY, AND THE RISK TO THEM WAS CONSEQUENTLY LOW. [R94] Different fish species from Abu Qir Bay, Idku Lake, and Maryut Lake in Alexandria, Egypt, were assayed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS). The lakes receive drainage from industrial, agricultural, and urban activities. The fish were obtained from commercial fishermen in 1985: Pagellus erythrinus, Sargus vulgarius, Siganus rivulatus, Sphyraena sphyraena, and Trigla hirundo from Abu Qir Bay; and Tilapia fish from Idku and Maryut Lakes. Twenty grams of dorsal fish muscle were extracted and the residues analyzed by GLC; reagent blanks and spike samples were included with each sample. With the exception of alpha-endosulfan at a low level (< 0.1 ug/kg) in Tilapia species, endosulfan was not detected in any sample. From a health standpoint, all samples were well below permissible levels for endosulfan(1). Eggs of Chinook salmon collected from 15 females returning from Lake Michigan in the Fall of 1982 contained endosulfan at concn ranging from 0.6 to 27.8 ug/kg wet weight with an average of 10.9 ug/kg(2). Endosulfan was detected in the muscle tissue of common carp, Tench and Bleak fish in so. Italy at concn of 5, 5 and 8 ng/g of wet weight, respectively(3). [R95] ENDOSULFAN WAS APPLIED TO FORAGE CROPS ON WHICH CATTLE WERE ALLOWED TO GRAZE BEGINNING SEVEN DAYS AFTER APPLICATION. ENDOSULFAN SULFATE WAS FOUND IN THE SILAGE & IN THE FAT OF ONLY ONE ANIMAL. ... NO DETECTABLE RESIDUES WERE FOUND IN THE MILK FROM DAIRY COWS FED THE TREATED SILAGE. Eight insecticides were identified from 43 samples of honey bees (Apis mellifera) obtained from 35 beekeepers in 1981 and 1982. A total of 268 colonies were documented to have been contaminated from May through early October. Carbaryl was detected in 65% of the samples. Methyl parathion and methoxychlor were found in 30 and 14% of the samples, respectively. Other insecticides in honey bees included endosulfan, chlordane, malathion, diazinon, and acephate. [R28] Endosulfan was detected in 13 of 55 apiaries in CT in 1983-5 at concn up to 4.40 ppm(1). [R96] Pyrolysis studies on tobacco indicate that the alpha and beta-isomers, the sulfate derivatives, and a variety of other products are present in contaminated tobacco smoke. [R97] Endosulfan residues (endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate) have been detected in most types of USA tobacco products in recent years. Average residue levels range from 0.12 mg/kg to 0.83 mg/kg for 1971-1973. [R98] The most probable route of endosulfan exposure in humans is the ingestion of food containing the pesticide as a result of intentional pesticide application or bioconcentration. (SRC) Food is the main source of exposure of the general population to endosulfan. ... Dermal exposure is another /potential route of entry/ in occupationally exposed /individuals/. /Total of alpha and beta-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate/ [R99] FOOD INTAKE: 1.18 ug - obtained by averaging the average daily intake values for the years 1971-76(1). WATER INTAKE: (assume 0.04 ppb), 0.08 ug. This value is based on only one measurement from an unidentified source and must, therefore, be considered tenuous. AIR INTAKE: (assume 111.9 ng/cu m) 2.24 ug for alpha-endosulfan and (assume 22.0 ng/cu m) 0.44 ug for beta-endosulfan. [R100] FLOWER INSPECTORS & COMMERCIAL FLORISTS HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO ENDOSULFAN CONTAMINATED FLOWERS. [R92] Workers engaged in airblast spraying of fruit orchards were exposed to endosulfan at 24.7 mg/hr dermally and 0.02 mg/hr via respiration on the average(1). Workers in formulation plants have also been exposed to endosulfan, although no quantitative data were presented(1). Endosulfan was shown to persist on the skin of the hands from 1 to 112 days after workers had applied the pesticide(2). [R101] Those engaged in the manufacture, formulation and application of this material. THE RAMAN SPECTRA OF FIVE PESTICIDES CONTAINING THE NORBORNENE GROUP INCL ENDOSULFAN WERE RECORDED TO PROVIDE ACCURATE SPECTRA AS AN AID TO IDENTIFICATION OF THE CMPD. [R111] DETERMINATION OF ENDOSULFAN RESIDUES IN FRESH FRUITS & VEGETABLES BY GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WAS STUDIED. [R112] A new solvent system, 1% and 2% acetone in hexane, was developed for chromatography on partially inactivated Florisil to facilitate the separation of isomers of endosulfan and its metabolites from fish tissues under tropical conditions. By using /a previously described/ colorimetric method ... the minimum detectable limit for each isomer of endosulfan in various fish tissues is 5 ug. With this solvent system, the two isomers present in the technical material can be separated, so their toxicity to fish can be assessed separately. [R113] EPA Method 8080: Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs. The sensitivity and reliability of Method 8080 usually depends on the level of interferences rather than on instrumental limitations. If interferences prevent detection of the analytes, Method 8080 may also be performed on samples that have undergone cleanup. Method 3620, Florisil Column Cleanup, by itself or followed by Method 3660, Sulfur Cleanup, may be used to eliminate interferences in the analysis. This method is used to determine the concentration of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in solid waste. A representative sample is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Due to the possibility of contamination, any contact with plastic must be avoided. Maximum sample holding time after extraction is 40 days. Detection is achieved by an electron capture detector (ECD) or a halogen-specific detector (HSD). Column 1 contains Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 1.5% SP-2250/1.95% SP-2401 packed in a 1.8-m by 4-mm ID glass column or equivalent. Colomn 2 contains Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 3% OV-1 in a 1.8-m by 4-mm ID glass column or equivalent. Under the prescribed conditions, Endosulfan I has a detection limit of 0.014 ug/l, an average recovery range of four measurements of 1.14-2.82 ug/l, and a limit for the standard deviation of 0.49 ug/l. /Endosulfan I/ [R114] EPA Method 8080: Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs. The sensitivity and reliability of Method 8080 usually depends on the level of interferences rather than on instrumental limitations. If interferences prevent detection of the analytes, Method 8080 may also be performed on samples that have undergone cleanup. Method 3620, Florisil Column Cleanup, by itself or followed by Method 3660, Sulfur Cleanup, may be used to eliminate interferences in the analysis. This method is used to determine the concentration of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in solid waste. A representative sample is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Due to the possibility of contamination, any contact with plastic must be avoided. Maximum sample holding time after extraction is 40 days. Detection is achieved by an electron capture detector (ECD) or a halogen-specific detector (HSD). Column 1 contains Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 1.5% SP-2250/1.95% SP-2401 packed in a 1.8-m by 4-mm ID glass column or equivalent. Colomn 2 contains Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 3% OV-1 in a 1.8-m by 4-mm ID glass column or equivalent. Under the prescribed conditions, Endosulfan II has a detection limit of 0.004 ug/l, an average recovery range of four measurements of 2.2-17.1 ug/l, and a limit for the standard deviation of 6.1 ug/l. /Endosulfan II/ [R114] EPA Method 608 A gas chromatography method for the analysis of endosulfan I in municipal and industrial discharges, consists of a glass column, 1.8 m x 4 mm, packed with Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 1.5% SP-2401, with electron capture detection, and a 5% methane/95% argon mixture as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 60 ml/min. A sample injection volume of 2 to 5 ul is suggested, the column temperature is held isothermal at 200 deg C. This method has a detection limit of 0.014 ug/l and an overall precision of 0.18 times the average recovery + 0.08, over a working range of 0.5 to 30 ug/l. /Endosulfan I/ [R115] EPA Method 608 A gas chromatography method for the analysis of endosulfan II in municipal and industrial discharges, consists of a glass column, 1.8 m x 4 mm, packed with Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 1.5% SP-2401, with electron capture detection, and a 5% methane/95% argon mixture as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 60 ml/min. A sample injection volume of 2 to 5 ul is suggested, the column temperature is held isothermal at 200 deg C. This method has a detection limit of 0.004 ug/l and an overall precision of 0.47 times the average recovery - 0.20, over a working range of 0.5 to 30 ug/l. /Endosulfan II/ [R115] THREE STATIONARY PHASES FOR SEPARATION OF ENDOSULFAN & METABOLITES FROM ANIMAL FAT UTILIZING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. [R116]

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