SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 54115
CASRN 54-11-5
SynonymsNicotine
Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-, (S)-, and salts
Molecular FormulaC10H14N2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use INSECTICIDE Vet: ectoparasiticide; has been used as an anthelmintic IN TANNING Greenhouse fumigant (former use)
Apparent Color COLORLESS TO PALE YELLOW, OILY LIQUID ; thick, water-white, oil turning brown
Odor Slightly fishy
Boiling Point 246.7 DEG C @ 745 MM HG
Melting Point -79 DEG C
Molecular Weight 162.23
Density 1.0097 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 1.90x10-5 moles/l taste detection in water (purity not specified) 3.00x10-3 g/l taste detection in water (purity not specified)
Environmental Impact Nicotine is a natural constituent of the tobacco plants Nicotiana tabacum and N rustica and it is released in the particulate phase of tobacco smoke. Nicotine may also be released to the environment due to its use as an insecticide and use in formulations for painting surfaces in poultry houses. If released to soil, nicotine may biodegrade to a variety of different products including oxynicotine and 3-pyridylmethyl ketone. Under alkaline conditions this compound should be extremely mobile. Nicotine is not expected to chemically hydrolyze or volatilize from moist soil surfaces. If released to water, nicotine may biodegrade. Slight potential also exists for photolysis. Chemical hydrolysis, bioaccumulation in the aquatic organisms, volatilization and adsorption under alkaline conditions to suspended solids and sediments are not expected to be significant fate processes. If released to air, nicotine is expected to degrade rather quickly in the presence of light and air. In the ambient atmosphere, nicotine may react with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (vapor phase half-life 1 day), be removed by wet deposition or photolyze. The most probable route of human exposure is by inhalation of tobacco smoke. Some people may also be exposed to nicotine in drinking water. Infants breast fed by women who smoke are exposed to nicotine in mother's milk. Worker exposure may occur during formulation, storage and application to pesticides and paints which contain this compound and during processing and extraction of tobacco.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released to soil, nicotine may biodegrade to a variety of different products including oxynicotine, 3-pyridylmethyl ketone, 2,3'-dipyridyl, N-methylmyosmine and a purple crystalline pigment. In moist soil chemical hydrolysis and volatilization are not expected to be important fate processes. Under alkaline condition, nicotine should be highly mobile. AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, nicotine may biodegrade. This compound is not expected to undergo chemical hydrolysis, bioaccumulate significantly in aquatic organisms or volatilize. Under alkaline conditions adsorption to suspended solids and sediments is not expected to be significant. Slight potential exists for photolysis. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to air nicotine is expected to degrade rather quickly in the presence of light and air. A resinous product may form. In the ambient atmosphere, nicotine may react with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (vapor phase t 1/2 1 day) or be removed by wet deposition. Slight potential exists for direct photolysis, since it adsorbs UV light only weakly above 290 nm.
Drinking Water Impact OF 10 WATER UTILITIES SURVEYED BY EPA (1975A), ONLY FINISHED WATER OF MIAMI CONTAINED NICOTINE @ 3 UG/L. DRINKING WATER: Nicotine was positively idenified in drinking water from: Cincinnati, OH - Oct 1978 and Jan 1980; Ottumva, IA - Sept 1976; and Seattle, WA - Nov 1976 . During the 1975 US EPA National Organics Reconnaissance Survey (NORS) nicotine was detected in 1/10 finished water supplies . Finished water from Miami, FL contained 3 ug/l nicotine . EFFL: Nicotine was tentatively identified in the final effluent, sampled during May 1980, from the Roselle, IL municipal wastewater treatment plant . During Nov 1980, 0.12 ug/l nicotine was identified in the secondary effluent from the Fort Polk, LA rapid infiltration site . Nicotine has been detected in the final effluent from one plant in each of the following industries: pulp and paper, auto and other laundries and mechanical products .

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