|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 502.2||EPA Method 503.1
||EPA Method 524.2
||EPA Method 601
||EPA Method 602
||EPA Method 612
||EPA Method 624
||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8010
||EPA Method 8021
||EPA Method 8120
||EPA Method 8270
||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| FUMIGANT & INSECTICIDE
/REACTED WITH POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE OR SODIUM HYDROXIDE TO PRODUCE
CHLOROPHENOLS; USED IN THE PREPARATION OF ARYLENE SULFIDE POLYMERS
IN THE PPS POLYMERIZATION PROCESS
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS LIQUID
|Boiling Point|| 173.53 @ 10 deg C
|Melting Point|| -24.7 deg C
|Molecular Weight|| 147.00
|Density|| 1.2884 @ 20 deg C/4 deg C
|Sensitivity Data|| VAPORS AND SPRAYS ARE IRRITATING TO EYES, NOSE AND THROAT.
|Environmental Impact|| Chemical waste dump leachates and direct manufacturing effluents are reported to be the
major source of pollution of the chlorobenzenes (including the dichlorobenzenes) to Lake
Ontario. Use of 1,3-dichlorobenzene as a fumigant will release it directly to the atmosphere. If
released to soil, 1,3-dichlorobenzene can be moderately to tightly adsorbed. Leaching from
hazardous waste disposal areas has occurred and the detection of 1,3-dichlorobenzene in various
groundwaters indicates that leaching can occur. Volatilization from soil surfaces may be an
important transport mechanism. It is possible that 1,3-dichlorobenzene will be slowly biodegraded
in soil under aerobic conditions. Chemical transformation by hydrolysis, oxidation or direct
photolysis are not expected to occur in soil. If released to water, adsorption to sediment will be a
major environmental fate process based upon extensive monitoring data in the Great Lakes area
and Koc values. Analysis of Lake Ontario sediment cores has indicated the presence and
persistence of 1,3-dichlorobenzene since before 1940. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene is volatile from the
water column with an estimated half-life of 4.1 hours from a river one meter deep flowing 1 m/sec
with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec at 20 deg C; adsorption to sediment will attenuate volatilization.
Aerobic biodegradation in water may be possible, however, anaerobic biodegradation is not
expected to occur. Experimental BCF values of 89-740 have been reported and
1,3-dichlorobenzene has been detected in trout from Lake Ontario. Hydrolysis, oxidation, and
direct photolysis in aquatic environment are not expected to be important. If released to air,
1,3-dichlorobenzene will exist predominantly in the vapor-phase and will react with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals at an estimated half-life rate of 14 days in a typical
atmosphere. Direct photolysis in the troposphere is not expected to be important. The detection
of 1,3-dichlorobenzene in rainwater suggests that atmospheric removal via wash-out is possible.
General population exposure to 1,3-dichlorobenzene may occur through oral consumption of
contaminated drinking water and food (particularly fish) and through inhalation of contaminated
air since 1,3-dichlorobenzene has been detected in ambient air.
|Environmental Fate|| AQUATIC FATE: Based on Koc values of 12600-31600 calculated from sediment/water
monitoring data and extensive sediment monitoring data in the Great Lakes area, adsorption to
sediment is a major environmental fate process for 1,3-dichlorobenzene. Its detection in Lake
Ontario sediment cores indicates that 1,3-dichlorobenzene has persisted in these sediments since
before 1940 . 1,3-Dichlorobenzene is volatile from water with an estimated half-life of 4.1
hours from a model river one meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec at 20
deg C; adsorption to sediment in water will attenuate volatilization. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene may
biodegrade in aerobic water after microbial adaptation, however, it is not expected to biodegrade
under anaerobic conditions which may exist in lake sediments or various groundwaters.
Experimental BCF values of 89-740 have been reported ; the detection of 1,3-dichlorobenzene
in trout from Lake Ontario has confirmed this level of bioaccumulation. Hydrolysis, oxidation and
direct photolysis in aquatic environment are not expected to be important.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: 1,3-Dichlorobenzene will exist predominantly in the vapor-phase in the
atmosphere. The half-life for the vapor-phase reaction of 1,3-dichlorobenzene with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere has been estimated to be 14 days.
Direct photolysis is not expected to be important. The detection of 1,3-dichlorobenzene in
rainwater suggests that atmospheric removal via wash-out is possible.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on experimental adsorption data, 1,3-dichlorobenzene can be
moderately to tightly adsorbed to soil. Leaching from hazardous waste disposal areas in Niagara
Falls to adjacent surface waters has been reported and the detection of 1,3-dichlorobenzene in
various groundwaters indicates that leaching can occur. Volatilization from soil surfaces may be
an important transport mechanism; however, volatilization may be attenuated by tight adsorption
or leaching. It is possible that 1,3-dichlorobenzene will be slowly biodegraded in soil under
aerobic conditions. Chemical transformation processes such as hydrolysis, oxidation or direct
photolysis (on soil surfaces) are not expected to occur.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: A mean 1,3-dichlorobenzene concn of 0.001 ppb was detected in
drinking water samples from 3 cities near Lake Ontario in 1980 . Concn of 0.5 ppb identified in
Miami, FL drinking water and qualitative detections were reported for Philadelphia, PA and
Cincinnati, OH . 1,3-Dichlorobenzene was not detected in 945 finished water supplies
throughout the USA that use groundwater sources . Qualitative detection was reported for
Cleveland, OH tap water . Qualitative detection was reported for two drinking water supply
sources in the United Kingdom . In a analysis of 30 potable Canadian water sources,
1,3-dichlorobenzene was detected at an average concn below 1 ppb(6).
GROUNDWATER: 1,3-Dichlorobenzene was detected in 19 of 685 groundwaters analyzed in NJ
during 1977-1979 with 236.8 ppb the highest concn found . 1,3-Dichlorobenzene was identified
in groundwaters at locations using rapid infiltration for wastewater treatment near Ft Devens,
MA, Boulder, CO and Phoenix, AZ at concn of 0.05-0.56 ppb .
SURFACE WATERS: 1,3-Dichlorobenzene was detected in 19 of 463 surface waters analyzed in
NJ during 1977-1979 with 241.5 ppb the highest concn found . Mean concn of 1 parts per
trillion detected in the Grand River during 1980 near Niagara Falls; concn of 0-18 parts per
trillion found in the Niagara River . Concn of 2.1-110 parts per trillion (mean concn of 11 parts
per trillion) detected in Niagara River at Niagara-On-The-Lake between 1981 and 1983 .
Concn of 2.4-85 parts per trillion (mean concn of 7.8 parts per trillion) detected in the Niagara
River between 1981 and 1983 . An average concn of 15 parts per trillion was found in the
Niagara River near Niagara-On-The-Lake between Sept and Oct 1982 . Positive detection of
1,3-dichlorobenzene was reported by 0.3% of 986 USEPA STORET stations(6). Qualitative
detection reported for the Delaware and Raritan Canal in NJ(7). Concn below 0.5 ppb detected in
the Rhine River between 1978-1982(8). An average concn of 0.05 ppb found in the Rhine River
SEA WATER: 1,3-Dichlorobenzene was detected in the water column of the Narragansett Bay
near Rhode Island .
RAIN/SNOW: A mean 1,3-dichlorobenzene concn of 0.002 parts per trillion was detected in
Portland, OR rainwater during March-April 1982 .
EFFL: The wastewater effluents from four water treatment plants discharging into the Grand
River and Lake Ontario contained a mean 1,3-dichlorobenzene concn of 14 parts per trillion
during 1980 sampling . Positive detection of 1,3-dichlorobenzene was reported by 1.5% of
1301 USEPA STORET stations . Dichlorobenzene isomers were detected in wastewater
effluents from 7 treatment facilities in Illinois . The dichlorobenzene isomers were qualitatively
detected in waters adjacent to hazardous waste disposal areas in Niagara Falls, NY as a result of
leaching . Flue gas effluents from a municipal refuse-fired steam boiler in Virginia contained 4.4
ug/cu m of the dichlorobenzene isomers ; flue gas effluents from a refuse-derived-fired power
plant in Ohio contained 7.8 ng/cu m of the dichlorobenzene isomers .