SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 57749
CASRN 57-74-9
SynonymsChlordane
4,7-Methano-1H-indene 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-
Chlorindan
Compound K (FDA)
Toxichlor
Analytical Methods EPA Method 505
EPA Method 508
EPA Method 608
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC10H6Cl8

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use The only commercial use of chlordane products still permitted is for fire ant control in power transformers. FUMIGANT; ACARICIDE (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR UNDERGROUND TERMITE CONTROL (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR HOME, GARDEN, & ORNAMENTALS (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR DECIDUOUS FRUITS & NUTS (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR CORN, CITRUS, & VEGETABLES (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR OTHER CROPS (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR LAWNS & TURF (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR AGRICULTURAL PREMISES (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR DITCH BANKS & ROADSIDES (FORMER USE) IMPORTANT PESTS CONTROLLED GRUBS, ANTS, WEBWORMS, ARMYWORMS, CUTWORMS, CHIGGERS LEAFHOPPERS. (SRP: FORMER USE) OIL SOLN USED ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY FOR SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE CONTROL APPLICATIONS AND EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES, GRANULES, DUSTS WETTABLE POWDERS FOR TERMITE CONTROL. (FORMER USE)
Consumption Patterns INSECTICIDE FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL USES (EXCLUDING FORESTS, AQUATIC USE, LIVESTOCK, & POULTRY), 100% (1982). IN 1974, 35% WAS USED BY PEST CONTROL OPERATORS, MOSTLY ON TERMITES; 30% FOR HOME LAWN AND GARDEN USE; 28% ON AGRICULTURAL CROPS; AND 7% ON TURF AND ORNAMENTALS.
Apparent Color AMBER-COLORED VISCOUS LIQUID ; BROWN LIQ TECHNICAL GRADE ; Colorless, viscous liquid ; White crystals
Odor PENETRATING; AROMATIC; SLIGHTLY PUNGENT, LIKE CHLORINE ; NEARLY ODORLESS
Boiling Point 175 DEG C @ 2 MM HG
Melting Point Melting point: 107.0-108.8 deg C cis-isomer; 103.0-105.0 deg C trans-isomer
Molecular Weight 409.80
Density 1.59-1.63 @ 25 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration Odor low: 0.0084 mg/cu m; Odor high: 0.0419 mg/cu m
Sensitivity Data Technical grade chlordane irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Environmental Impact Chlordane has been released into the environment primarily from its application as an insecticide. Currently, there are no approved uses for chlordane in the US. If released to soil, chlordane may persist for long periods of time; under field conditions, the mean degradation rate has been observed to range from 4.05-28.33%/yr with a mean half-life of 3.3 years. Chlordane is expected to be generally immobile or only slightly mobile in soil based on field tests, soil column leaching tests and Koc estimation; however, its detection in various groundwaters in NJ and elsewhere indicates that movement to groundwater can occur. Soil volatility tests have found that chlordane can volatilize significantly from soil surfaces on which it has been sprayed, particularly moist soil surfaces; however, shallow incorporation into soil will greatly restrict volatile losses. Although sufficient biodegradation data are not available, it has been suggested that chlordane is very slowly biotransformed in the environment which is consistent with the long persistence periods observed under field conditions. If released to water, chlordane is not expected to undergo significant hydrolysis, oxidation or direct photolysis. The volatilization half-life from a river one meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 7.3-7.9 hrs at 23 deg C while the volatilization half-lives from a representative environmental pond, river and lake are estimated to be 18-26, 3.6-5.2 and 14.4-20.6 days, respectively. However, adsorption to sediment significantly attenuates the importance of volatilization. Adsorption to sediment is expected to be a major fate process based on soil adsorption data, estimated Koc values (15,500-24,600), and extensive sediment monitoring data. Bioconcentration is expected to be important based on experimental log BCF values which are generally above 3,200. Sensitized photolysis in the water column may be possible. The presence of chlordane in sediment core samples suggests that chlordane may be very persistent in the adsorbed state in the aquatic environment. If released to the atmosphere chlordane will be expected to exist predominately in the vapor phase. Chlordane will react in the vapor-phase with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals at an estimated half-life rate of 6.2 hr suggesting that this reaction is the dominant chemical removal process. The detection of chlordane in remote atmospheres (Pacific and Atlantic Oceans; The Arctic) indicates that long range transport occurs. It has been estimated that 96% of the airborne reservoir of chlordane exists in the sorbed state which may explain why its long range transport is possible without chemical transformation. The detection of chlordane in rainwater and its observed dry deposition at various rural locations indicates that physical removal via wet and dry deposition occurs in the environment. Major general population exposure to chlordane can occur through oral consumption of contaminated food and inhalation of contaminated air as well as through contact with treated soil. Occupational exposure by dermal and inhalation routes related to the use of chlordane as an insecticide may have been significant.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: APPLIED TO TURF SOIL, NO INCR IN PERSISTENCE WAS OBSERVED WITH APPLICATION RATES OF CHLORDANE UP TO 28 KG/HECTARE . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Pesticides applied to soils and crops may enter the atmosphere in several ways. Significant portions of aerially applied chemicals never reach the target and drift away from the treated area. Compounds may also volatilize from the treated areas and then contaminate the atmosphere. Long-distance transportation in the atmosphere may then take place in the vapor phase or the compound may be attached to airborne particles, eg, dust particles, water droplets and plant seeds. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Chlordane although stable to UV light under normal conditions, some components, namely chlordene, heptachlor, and cis alpha-chlordane, will photo-isomerize under high intensity UV light in the presence of sensitizers such as ketones; Also, dechlorination reactions can occur in unsensitized media. Photo-cis-chlordane seems to be the only photo-isomer which can be found under field conditions, but its significance as a residue is considered minimal. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Chlordane exhibits 75-100% disappearance from soils in 3-5 years. AQUATIC FATE: Both chlordane isomers stable in water for 60 days. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Chlordane released to soils may persist for long periods of time. One review of chlordane soil persistence literature has reported that the mean degradation rate of chlordane in soil under field conditions has been observed to range from 4.05-28.33%/year ; another literature review has reported the mean half-life of chlordane under field conditions to be 3.3 years . Based on field tests, soil column leaching tests and Koc estimation, chlordane is expected to be generally immobile or only slightly mobile in soil; however, the detection of chlordane in a number of NJ groundwaters and groundwaters elsewhere indicates that leaching can occur(3-5). Soil volatility studies have found that chlordane can volatilize significantly from soil surfaces on which it has been sprayed, particularly moist soil surfaces; however, shallow incorporation into soil was found to greatly restrict volatilization losses. Sufficient data are not available to predict the biodegradation rate of chlordane in soil. However, it has been suggested that chlordane is very slowly biotransformed in the environment (similar in nature to dieldrin) which is consistent with the long persistence periods observed under field conditions. AQUATIC FATE: Chlordane released to water is not expected to undergo significant hydrolysis, oxidation, or direct photolysis(1-2). Based on experimentally determined Henry's Law constants(3-4), chlordane (gamma- and trans-isomers) can be expected to volatilize significantly from the water column to the atmosphere; the volatilization half-life from a river one meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 7.3-7.9 hrs at 23 deg C for the gamma- and trans-isomers, respectively, and 43 hr for technical chlordane while the volatilization half-lives from a representative environmental pond, river and lake are estimated to be 18-26, 3.6-5.2 and 14.4-20.6 days, respectively(6). Adsorption to sediment, however, significantly attenuates the importance of volatilization(7). Adsorption to sediment is expected to be a major fate process based on soil adsorption data, estimated Koc values (15,500-24,600) , and extensive sediment monitoring data. Bioconcentration is also expected to be significant based on experimental log BCF values ranging from 2.60 to 4.58 with most of the log BCF values above 3.5(8-9). Acetone, benzophenone and rotenone have been found to sensitize the photolysis of chlordane in the laboratory which may suggest that sensitized photolysis in the natural water column is possible(7). The presence of chlordane in sediment core samples suggests that chlordane may be very persistent in the adsorbed state in the aquatic environment(10). The observation that 85% of the chlordane originally present in a sealed glass jar under sunlight and aritifical light in a rive die-away test remained at the end of two weeks and persisted at that level through week 8 of the experiment(11) indicates that chlordane will be very persistent in aquatic environments. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If chlordane is released to the atmosphere, it will be expected to be predominatly in the vapor-phase(3-4), based upon its vapor pressure(5-7). Chlordane present in the atmosphere in vapor-phase will react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals at an estimated half-life rate of 6.2 hr suggesting that this reaction is the dominant chemical removal process for vapor-phase chlordane. Since chlordane does not absorb UV light above 280 nm(6), direct photolysis should not occur. The detection of chlordane in the ambient atmosphere of remote locations in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and in the Arctic air(7) indicate that long range transport of the chemical occurs. It has been estimated that 96% of the airborne reservoir of chlordane exists in the sorbed state . Particulate-phase chlordane may be physically removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition processes. Its' detection in rainwater(7) suggests that wet deposition occurs. The dry deposition velocity of chlordane has been observed to be 0.13 cm/sec at various rural locations on the eastern coast of the USA(2,SRC).
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Chlordane was qualitatively detected in drinking water from New Orleans,LA and Kansas City,MO and KS . Chlordane (unspecified isomers) was detected at concn of 0.80 and 0.13 ug/l in drinking water from two tanks sampled between November 1986 and June 1987 of the New South Wales, Australia, northern coast; one of the tanks also contained oxychlordane at a concn of 0.5 ug/l . Chlordane was found in the drinking water of Pittsburgh,PA in December 1980 at concn ranging from <1.0 to 6,600 ppb . It was found in 22% of 63 drinking water samples from 7 US cities between 1965 and 1967 . Chlor on March 24, 1976 at concn up to 1,200 ppm . GROUNDWATER: Chlordane was detected in 433 of 1076 samples collected in NJ between 1977-1979 with max concn of 0.4 ppb . Chlordane (unspecified isomers) had confirmed detections in Mississippi (1.80 ppb max - normal agricultural use origin), Indiana (0.04 ppb max - point source origin), and Kansas (7.90 ppb max - unknown origin) . Chlordane was detected, not quantified, in 4 out of an unspecified number of samples of ground water in California (detection limit and isomers not specified) . Technical chlordane residues were found in ground water samples collected quarterly from 3 of 4 golf courses on Cape Cod between April 1986 and August 1987; the avg concn at the positive sites ranged from 0.11 to 2.59 ppb and the overall range of concn was not detected (detection limit not specified) to 7.20 ppb . The presence of chlordane in the golf course ground water samples suggested to be due to either facilitated transport (i.e. macropore flow) or to cross contamination during well installation . Chlordane (unspecified isomers) was found in 1 of 103 farmstead wells in Kansas sampled from December 1985 through February 1986 . SURFACE WATER: Chlordane was detected in 340 of 603 samples collected in NJ between 1977-1979 with a max concn of 0.8 ppb . cis- and trans-Chlordane have been positively detected in 56% of 820-827 USEPA STORET reporting stations; chlordane has been positively detected in 40% of 5250 reporting stations . An average chlordane concn of 0.059 ppb was found in nearshore tributary waters of Lake Superior in 1973-1976 . gamma-Chlordane levels of 0.4-1.2 ppb were found in the lower Mississippi River during continuous monitoring in 1974 . Mean concn of 0.1-0.4 ng/l were found in the Grand and Saugeen rivers (Ontario) in 1975-1977 . SURFACE WATER: Chlordane was found occasionally (<10% of samples pos) at up to 47 ng/L in water samples collected in 1975-1977 from streams in 11 agricultural watersheds in Ontario, Canada . During a 1975-1980 national surface water monitoring program, chlordane occurred in the surface water of 0.6% of the 177 stations in the US tested; a total of 2943 samples were taken . RAINWATER: A mean chlordane concn of less than 0.02 ng/l was detected in the rainwater collected at the remote Enewetak Atoll in the N Pacific Ocean in 1979 . Chlordane was detected in 4 Hawaiian rainwater samples from 1971-2 at levels of 1-3 parts per trillion . gamma-Chlordane was detected in unfiltered rainwater from urban and rural areas of Ontario, Canada, sampled between April and August 1981 at concn ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 ng/L . Chlordane (total of cis- and trans-isomers) were detected in unfiltered rainwater from coastal suburban South Carolina sampled spring through fall in the years 1977 through 1979 at concn ranging from <0.2 to 5.9 ng/kg rain . Chlordane was found in 35 of 36 samples of rainwater collected in Bermuda during 1983 and 1984 at max, med, avg concn of 486, 48 and 77 ng/L, respectively . Chlordane (unspecified isomers) was found in 24 samples of rainwater collected in College Station, TX between Jan to May 1979 at concn ranging from 0.60 to 9.1 ng/L and an avg concn 2.14 ng/L . EFFL: Chlordane has been positively detected in 3.0% of 663 effluent reporting stations in the USEPA STORET data base system . Preliminary results of the EPA Nationwide Urban Runoff Program have found 0.01-10 ppb chlordane in stormwater runoff from Lake Quinsigamond, MA and Kansas City, MO . Chlordane has been qualitatively identified in various wastewater effluents from chemical factories . Chlordane was found in 73% of 44 samples of sewage sludge from an unknown number of unspecified sites in the USA .

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