SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 59892
CASRN 59-89-2
SynonymsN-Nitrosomorpholine
Morpholine, 4-nitroso-
Molecular FormulaC10H16

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use SOLVENT, MFR RESINS FRAGRANCE IN COSMETICS (EG, SOAPS & PERFUMES); FLAVORING AGENT IN FOOD, BEVERAGES & CHEWING GUM; CHEM INT FOR L-CARVONE, A FRAGRANCE & FLAVORING AGENT, TERPENE RESIN MFR; SOLVENT; WETTING & DISPERSING AGENT; PREPN OF SULFURIZED TERPENE LUBE OIL ADDITIVES d-Limonene is used to synthesize l-carvone.
Consumption Patterns (1976) 6.81X10 7 G (CONSUMPTION AS FRAGRANCE)
Apparent Color LIQUID
Odor FRESH, CITRUS ODOR
Boiling Point 175.5-176 DEG C @ 763 MM HG
Melting Point -74.35 DEG C
Molecular Weight 136.23
Density 0.8402 @ 25 deg C/4 deg C
Sensitivity Data CAUTION: SKIN IRRITANT, SENSITIZER.
Environmental Impact (D)-Limonene is both a naturally occurring and a synthetically produced terpene which is used in flavors and fragrances, as a solvent and for numerous other commercial uses. If released to soil, (D)-limonene is expected to exhibit low to slight mobility. It is expected to rapidly volatilize from both dry and moist soil to the atmosphere although strong adsorption to soil may attenuate the rate of this process. If released to water, (D)-limonene may bioconcentrate in fish and aquatic organisms and it may significantly adsorb to sediment and suspended organic matter. It is expected to rapidly volatilize from water to the atmosphere. The estimated half-life for volatilization of (D)-limonene from a model river is 3.4 hr, although adsorption to sediment and suspended organic matter may attenuate the rate of this process. If released to the atmosphere, (D)-limonene is expected to rapidly undergo gas-phase oxidation reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals, ozone, and at night with nitrate radicals. Calculated half-lives for these processes are 2.3-2.6 hr, 25-26 min and 3.1 min, respectively. Occupational exposure to (D)-limonene may occur by inhalation or dermal contact during its production formulation, transport or use. Exposure to the general population may occur by inhalation due to its presence in the atmosphere as a result of released from natural sources or by ingestion of food in which it is contained.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on the solubility of (D)-limonene, 13.8 mg/l at 25 deg C and its estimated log octanol/water partition coefficient of 4.232(2,SRC), soil adsorption coefficients of 1030-4780 can be calculated using appropriate regression equations(3,SRC) indicating that it will display low to slight mobility in soil . Its vapor pressure, 20 mm Hg at 68.2 deg C and a calculated Henry's Law constant of 0.380 atm cu m/mole at 25 deg C(5,SRC) indicate that (D)-limonene will rapidly volatilize from both dry and moist soil to the atmosphere although its strong adsorption to soil may attenutae the rate of this process. AQUATIC FATE: Based on the water solubility of (D)-limonene, 13.8 mg/l at 25 deg C and an estimated log octanol/water partition coefficient of 4.232(2,SRC) bioconcentration factors of 246-262 can be calculated using appropriate regression equations(3,SRC) indicating that it may bioconcentrate in fish and aquatic organisms. Estimated soil adsorption coefficients ranging 1030 to 4780(1,2,3,SRC) indicate that (D)-limonene may significantly adsorb to sediment and suspended organic matter. A calculated Henry's Law constant of 0.380 atm cu m/mole at 25 deg C(4,SRC) suggests that it will rapidly volatilize from water to the atmosphere. The estimated half-life for volatilization of (D)-limonene from a model river 1 m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec is 3.4 hr(3,SRC), although adsorption to sediment and suspended organic matter may attenuate the rate of this process. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, (D)-limonene is expected to rapidly undergo gas-phase oxidation reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals, ozone, and at night with nitrate radicals. Based on experimental rate constants, calculated half-lives for the gas-phase reaction between limonene and photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals range from 2.3-2.6 hr(1,2,3,SRC). For the gas-phase reaction of (D)-limonene with ozone, a half-life ranging from 25-26 min can be calculated(1,4,5,SRC). A calculated half-life, based on an experimentally determined rate constant, for the night-time reaction of (D)-limonene with nitrate radicals of 3.1 min can also be calculated(1,6,SRC). The atmospheric lifetime of (D)-limonene during the daytime was estimated at 0.2-0.8 hr depending on both the local hydroxyl radical and ozone concn(7).

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