|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||Diethylsulfate||Sulfuric acid, diethyl ester
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| ETHYLATING AGENT; AS AN ACCELERATOR IN SULFATION OF ETHYLENE;
IN SOME SULFONATIONS
CHEM INT FOR ETHYL DERIVATIVES OF PHENOLS, AMINES, & THIOLS & AS AN
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS, OILY LIQUID DARKENS WITH AGE
|Odor|| FAINT ETHEREAL OR PEPPERMINT ODOR
|Boiling Point|| 96 DEG C @ 15 MM HG
|Melting Point|| -24.5 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 154.18
|Density|| 1.1774 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Sensitivity Data|| INTENSELY IRRITATING PRODUCING INFLAMMATION OF THE EYES &
UPPER AIRWAY, VESICATION OF SKIN.
|Environmental Impact|| Diethylsulfate is an anthropogenic compound used as an ethylating agent in a wide
variety of synthetic reactions. It may be released to the environment in fugitive emissions during
its production and use. If released to soil, estimated soil adsorption coefficients ranging from 33
to 99 indicate that it may display high to very high mobility in soil; however, diethylsulfate is
known to rapidly hydrolyze in water under neutral, basic and acidic conditions and this reaction is
expected to dominate its fate in soil. If released to water, diethylsulfate is expected to hydrolyze
with an experimental half-life of 1.7 hrs at neutral pH. This reaction is catalyzed by both acids and
bases. Diethylsulfate is not expected to bioconcentrate in fish and aquatic organisms nor is it
expected to adsorb to sediment and suspended organic matter. If released to the atmosphere,
diethylsulfate is expected to undergo a gas-phase reaction with water vapor with an experimental
half-life of <1 day. It may also undergo atmospheric removal by wet deposition during a rain
event. Occupational exposure to diethylsulfate may occur by dermal contact or inhalation during
its production or use.
|Environmental Fate|| ALTHOUGH IT COULD OCCUR IN WASTE STREAMS FROM PLANTS WHERE
IT IS MADE OR USED, IT HYDROLYZES RAPIDLY.
TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released to soil, estimated soil adsorption coefficients ranging from
33 to 99(1,SRC) obtained using appropriate regression equations and its water solubility, 7000
mg/L at 25 deg C , and its experimental log octanol water partition coefficient, 1.14 , indicate
that diethylsulfate may display high to very high mobility in soil . Diethylsulfate is known to
rapidly hydrolyze in water with an experimental half-life of 1.7 hr under neutral
conditions(5,SRC) and catalyzed under both acidic and basic conditions(6) and this reaction is
expected to dominate in moist soil. Based on its extrapolated vapor pressure(7) and
estimated Henry's Law constant(1,SRC), diethylsulfate is expected to slowly volatilize from both
moist and dry soil to the atmosphere.
AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, diethylsulfate is expected to rapidly hydrolyze. An
experimental rate constant of 11.5X10-5 1/sec at 25 deg C translates to a half-life of 1.7 hours
at neutral pH. The rate of hydrolysis will increase in both acidic and basic waters as the
reaction is catalyzed under these conditions . An estimated Henry's Law constant of 8.4X10-6
atm/cu-m mol at 25 deg C(3-5,SRC) indicates that diethylsulfate may slowly volatilize from water
and moist soil although this process may not successfully compete with hydrolysis. The
half-life for volatilization from a model river 1 m deep flowing at 1 m/sec and a wind speed of 3
m/sec is 5.6 days(1,SRC). An estimated bioconcentration factor of 4(3-5,SRC) indicates that
diethylsulfate is not expected to bioconcentrate in fish and aquatic organisms. Estimated
soil adsorption coefficients ranging from 33 to 99(3-5,SRC) indicate that it will not adsorb to
sediment and suspended organic matter.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, diethylsulfate is expected to undergo
removal by the gas-phase reaction with water vapor(1,SRC). The experimental rate constant for
this process, <2.3X10-23 cu cm/mol-sec translates to a half-life of <1 day in the atmosphere .
The half-life for the gas-phase reaction of diethylsulfate with photochemically produced hydroxyl
radicals, 6.4 d, calculated from an experimental rate constant of 1.8X10-12 cu cm/mol-sec ,
indicates that this process may also contribute to atmospheric removal to a small extent.
The water solubility of diethylsulfate, 7000 mg/L at 25 deg C , indicates that diethylsulfate may
also be removed from the atmosphere during a rain event.