SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 67630
CASRN 67-63-0
SynonymsIsopropanol
Isopropyl alcohol
Molecular FormulaC3H8O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use IN ANTIFREEZE COMPOSITIONS; EXTRACTION OF ALKALOIDS; AS SOLVENT FOR GUMS, SHELLAC, ESSENTIAL OILS, CREOSOTE, RESINS; IN QUICK DRYING OILS; IN QUICK DRYING INKS; IN DENATURING ALCOHOL; ANTISEPTIC IN HAND LOTIONS, AFTER SHAVE LOTIONS; COSMETICS; IN MANUFACTURE OF ACETONE MEDICATION: ANTISEPTIC; MEDICATION (VET): ANTISEPTIC, RUBEFACIENT IN LINIMENTS, PERMANENT WAVE PREPARATIONS, PHARMACEUTICALS, HAIR TONICS; AS A SOLVENT IN PERFUMES, OILS, & IN EXTRACTION PROCESSES; AS RUBBING ALCOHOL; & INGREDIENT IN LIQUID SOAPS & WINDOW CLEANERS LATENT SOLVENT FOR CELLULOSE DERIV; COATING SOLVENT; DEICING AGENT FOR LIQ FUELS; DEHYDRATING AGENT SYNTHETIC FLAVORING ADJUVANT USED IN NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 25 PPM; CANDY 10-75 PPM; BAKED GOODS 75 PPM. COMPONENT OF HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS, (EG, AEROSOL INSECTICIDES); CHEMICAL PROCESSING SOLVENT; CHEM INTERMED FOR OTHER CHEMS, (EG, ISOPROPYLAMINE) Avantine, a brand of isopropyl alcohol, is used as an anesthetic. As a vehicle for other germicidal compounds. Manufacture of glycerol Production of isopropylacetate and herbicidol esters and xanthates For preserving pathological specimens and for dehydrating tissues; for the preparation of icepacks; solvent in food; to disinfect equipment For surgical suture packaging
Consumption Patterns CHEM INTERMED FOR ACETONE, 24%; SOLVENT FOR COATINGS, 15%; SOLVENT FOR INKS & OILS, 11%; PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS (EG, ANTISEPTIC AND DISINFECTANT, BATHING SOLUTION FOR SUTURES), 11%; COMPONENT OF HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS AND COSMETICS, 11%; CHEMICAL PROCESSING SOLVENT, 9%; CHEM INTERMED FOR OTHER CHEMS, 7%; GASOLINE ADDITIVE, 4%; EXPORTS, 8% (1984) CHEMICAL PROFILE: Isopropanol. Coating solvent, 18%; processing solvent, 14%; pharmaceuticals, 14%; household and personal products, 14%; acetone, 10%; miscellaneous solvent and chemical intermediate uses, 10%; exports, 20%. CHEMICAL PROFILE: Isopropanol. Demand: 1,275 million lb; 1987: 1,325 million lb; 1991 /projected/: 1,400 million lb (Includes exports; in addition, 107 million lb were imported in 1986). 50th highest volume chemical produced in the USA (1985)
Apparent Color COLORLESS LIQUID
Odor PLEASANT ODOR ; SLIGHT ODOR RESEMBLING THAT OF MIXT OF ETHANOL & ACETONE
Boiling Point 82.5 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point -88.5 DEG C
Molecular Weight 60.09
Density 0.78505 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 90 mg/cu m MIN CONCN WITH IDENTIFIABLE ODOR IS 200 PPM. Odor threshold 7.84 mg/cu m (low) 490 mg/cu m (high).
Sensitivity Data MILD IRRITATION OF THE EYES, NOSE AND THROAT WAS INDUCED IN HUMAN SUBJECTS EXPOSED FOR 3 TO 5 MIN TO 400 PPM OF ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL.
Environmental Impact Isopropanol will enter the environment as emissions from its manufacture and use as a solvent. It naturally occurs as a plant volatile and is released during the microbial degradation of animal wastes. When released on land it is apt to volatilize and leach into groundwater and possibly biodegrade but no data on the rates of these processes was found. Its fate in groundwater is unknown. When released into water, isopropanol will volatilize and biodegrade. It would not be expected to adsorb to sediment or bioconcentrate in fish. Although no data on its rate of degradation in natural waters could be found, laboratory tests and the lack of monitoring data suggests that it is not very long lived in this environment. In the atmosphere it will photodegrade primarily by reaction with hydroxyl radicals with a half-life of one to several days. Human exposure will be both in occupational atmospheres and from use of consumer products containing isopropanol as a volatile solvent.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: When spilled on soil, isopropanol will both evaporate quickly and leach into the ground due to its high vapor pressure and low adsorption to soil. Degradation in soil and groundwater has not been determined. If soil degradation is not rapid, it is apt to leach into the groundwater. . AQUATIC FATE: When released into water, isopropyl alcohol will volatilize (estimated half-life approximately 5.4 days) and may biodegrade. Although it is readily degradable in a number of laboratory tests, no data on its degradability in natural waters could be found. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: When released into the atmosphere, isopropanol will photodegrade with an estimated half-life ranging from one to several days. Due to its solubility in water, rainout may be significant.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER - detected in trace quantities in some samples of unspecified sources . SURFACE WATER: Identified, not quantified in Cayahooga River (tributary of Lake Erie) . EFFL: Leachate from 5 Connecticut town landfill sites, 1 of 5 pos, 3.4 ppm . Tar water from distillation of shale tar . Gas emission streptomycin production, 2.7% of total . Isopropanol was found in leachate from Minnesota landfills in the range of 94-41,000 mg/l(6/6 samples pos) . It was also found in groundwater suspected of leachate contamination (based on levels of inorganics) - 8.6-2600 mg/l (6 of 13 samples pos), but not detected in ground water where inorganics levels indicted good or unknown water quality .

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