|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||Carbon disulfide||Carbon bisulfide||Dithiocarbonic anhydride
||EPA Method 524.2||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| MFR OF RAYON, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, XANTHOGENATES, SOIL
DISINFECTANTS, ELECTRONIC VACUUM TUBES; SOLVENT FOR PHOSPHORUS,
SULFUR, SELENIUM, BROMINE, IODINE, FATS, RESINS, & RUBBERS.
CHEM INT FOR CELLOPHANE, RUBBER COMPOUNDS-EG,
2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE, AMMONIUM THIOCYANATE & SODIUM
THIOCYANATE, ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE, &
FUMIGANT-EG, FOR COMMODITIES & SPACE FUMIGATION FORMER USE/; CHEM
INT FOR SULFUR & CARBONYL SULFIDE (CLAUS PROCESS), XANTHATES-EG,
ALKALI METAL XANTHATES, VEGADEX HERBICIDE VIA A DITHIOCARBAMATE, &
OTHER DITHIOCARBAMATES; SOLVENT-EG, FOR CLEANING & EXTRACTIONS;
AGENT IN METAL TREATMENT & PLATING-EG, FOR GOLD & NICKEL
CORROSION INHIBITOR; POLYMERIZATION INHIBITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE;
AGENT IN REMOVAL OF METALS FROM WASTE WATER; REGENERATOR FOR
TRANSITION METAL SULFIDE CATALYSTS; DEVELOPMENT RESTRAINER FOR
INSTANT COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY.
CHEM INT FOR ADHESIVES USED IN FOOD PACKAGING; CATALYST & CATALYST
ADJUVANT & ACTIVATOR; VETERINARY ANTHELMINTIC; CHEM INT FOR OTHER
ORGANICS-EG, 2-THIOTHIAZOLINES & OTHER INORGANICS-EG, RARE EARTH
Miscellaneous application include direct uses of carbon disulfide for the cold vulcanization of
rubber, as a flame lubricant in cutting glass, and for generating petroleum catalysts . (1985)]
Optical glass, paints, enamels, varnishes, paint removers, tallow, explosives, rocket fuel, putty
preservatives, rubber cement, solvent for waxes, lacquers, camphor, resins, vulcanized rubber
and pesticide intermediates.
Food-related uses incl preservation of fresh fruit, in adhesive compositions for food packaging,
and as a solvent in the extraction of growth inhibitors.
Insecticide used for fumigation of nursery stock and for soil treatment against insects and
nematodes. Former use
Used for fumigation in airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storages, bins, grain elevators,
railroad boxcars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills. Former use
Used as seed treatment on conifers.
USED IN THE XANTHATION OF CELLULOSE IN THE PREPARATION OF VISCOSE
Manufacture of flotation agents
|Consumption Patterns|| CHEM INT FOR RAYON, 40%; CELLOPHANE, 18%; CARBON
TETRACHLORIDE, 15%; OTHER USES, 27% (1982)
Rayon, 40%; cellophane (10% carbon tetrachloride), 25%; rubber chemicals, 10%; miscellaneous
(including pesticides and paraffin solvent), 15% (1984) Estimate
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon disulfide. Carbon tetrachloride, 38%; rayon, 34%; rubber
chemicals, 7%; cellophane and other regenerated cellulosics, 6%; agricultural chemicals, 5%;
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon disulfide. Demand: 1988: 400 million lb; 1989: 390 million lb;
1993 projected/: 325 million lb. (Includes imports, which totaled 2.8 million lb in 1987; exports
|Apparent Color|| MOBILE LIQUID ; Clear, colorless or faintly yellow liquid
|Odor|| PUREST DISTILLATES HAVE SWEET, PLEASING, & ETHEREAL ODOR
USUAL COMMERCIAL AND REAGENT GRADES ARE FOUL SMELLING ; When pure,
carbon disulfide has sweetish aromatic odor similar to that of chloroform.
|Boiling Point|| 46.5 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| -111.5 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 76.14
|Density|| 1.2632 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| 0.1 TO 0.2 PPM
Detection, odor, in air; purity not specified: 2.60x10-3 mg/l (gas).
Recognition, odor, in air; purity not specified: 2.10x10-1 ppm.
Odor Low: 0.0243 mg/m Odor High: 23.1 mg/m
|Sensitivity Data|| Severely irritating to eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Skin sensitization may occur.
|Environmental Impact|| Carbon disulfide is a natural product of anaerobic biodegradation and is released to the
atmosphere from oceans and land masses. Geothermal sources also contribute to carbon disulfide
emissions. It also may be released as emissions and in wastewater during its production and use as
in the production of viscose rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride, and as a solvent. In the
past it was also used as a fumigant. If released on land, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost by
volatilization. It may also readily leach into the ground where it may biodegrade. If released into
water, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost due to volatilization (half-life 2.6 hr in a model river).
Adsorption to sediment and bioconcentration in fish should not be significant. In the atmosphere
carbon disulfide degrades by reacting with atomic oxygen and photochemically produced hydroxyl
radicals (half-life 6-9 days). The soil may be a natural sink for the chemical by adsorbing and
subsequently biodegrading it. Exposure to carbon disulfide is mostly occupational and primarily
by inhalation. Only workers in the viscose rayon industry are exposed to high concn. The general
population may be exposed to carbon disulfide from ambient air as well as food items containing
grain that has been fumigated with the chemical.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on land, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost by
volatilization. Since it has a low adsorptivity to soil, it should also readily leach into the ground
where there is some evidence that it may biodegrade.
AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost due to
volatilization (half-life 2.6 hr in a model river). Adsorption to sediment should not be significant.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: In the atmosphere, carbon disulfide reacts with atomic oxygen and
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with half-lives of 9 and 5.9-8.0 days,
respectively(3-4). The action of soil in adsorbing and degrading gaseous carbon disulfide
demonstrates that soil may be a natural sink for the chemical . If the atmospheric concn of
carbon disulfied at 6.1 km altitude is typical for marine boundry layer levels, the sharp decrease in
concn at higher altitudes supports the concept of a photochemical lifetime of a month or less in
the troposphere .
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Drinking water samples from nine cities in the US and one rural
well contained no carbon disulfide (no detection limit stated) . It was detected, but no
quantified in New Oreleans as well as Miami and Cincinnati drinking water .
SURFACE WATER: The mean concn of carbon disulfide in the open waters of the Atlantic
Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean of Ireland are 0.52 and 0.78 parts/trillion, respectively . The
mean concn in stagnant bay water was 5.4 parts/trillion . Water samples from 82 stations in
Lake Ontario and 17 in the lower Niagara River were analyzed for volatile organics . Two river
samples contained 25 parts/trillion of carbon disulfide while the other station contained <20
parts/trillion, the detection limit . Eleven lake samples contained quantifiable amounts of carbon
disulfide whose median and max concn was 400 and 3900 parts/trillion, respectively . Half of
the other samples contained trace quantities of the chemical and the other stations contained <80
parts/trillion, the detection limit . Carbon disulfide was prominent in Toronto Harbour, with
lower levels in Hamilton Harbor and Oak Orchard Creek . In another study, carbon disulfide
was detected but not quantified in the central basin of Lake Erie, the Niagara River, and open
waters of Lake Ontario and absent from the western basin of Lake Ontario .
EFFL: In a comprehensive survey of wastewater from 4000 industrial and publicly owned
treatment works (POTWs) sponsored by the Effluent Guidelines Division of the US EPA, carbon
disulfide was identified in discharges of the following industrial category (frequency of
occurrence; median concn in ppb): leather tanning (1; 7.5), paint and ink (4; 1078.6), organics and
plastics (30; 1654.3), plastics and synthetics (4; 7075.4), pulp and paper (2; 215.6), pesticides
manufacture (1; 88.8), publicly owned treatment works (11; 45.8) . The highest effluent concn
was 18,943 ppb in the plastics and synthetics industry . In a survey of 63 industrial waste water
effluents, carbon disulfide was identified in 8 samples, 6 of which were <10 ppb and 2 between 10
and 100 ppb . The concn of carbon disulfide in offgas from two oil shale retorting processes
were 24 ppm and 13 ppm . Carbon disulfide was found in both the influent and effluent of a
large community septic tank . The combined concentration of carbon disulfide and
dichloromethane in the effluent, which was 10 ppb, was much higher than that in the enfluent and
reflected the presence of anaerobic processes in the sewer line or septic tank .