Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 75150
CASRN 75-15-0
SynonymsCarbon disulfide
Carbon bisulfide
Dithiocarbonic anhydride
Analytical Methods EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaCS2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use MFR OF RAYON, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, XANTHOGENATES, SOIL DISINFECTANTS, ELECTRONIC VACUUM TUBES; SOLVENT FOR PHOSPHORUS, SULFUR, SELENIUM, BROMINE, IODINE, FATS, RESINS, & RUBBERS. CHEM INT FOR CELLOPHANE, RUBBER COMPOUNDS-EG, 2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE, AMMONIUM THIOCYANATE & SODIUM THIOCYANATE, ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE, & TRICHLOROMETHANESULFENYL CHLORIDE. FUMIGANT-EG, FOR COMMODITIES & SPACE FUMIGATION FORMER USE/; CHEM INT FOR SULFUR & CARBONYL SULFIDE (CLAUS PROCESS), XANTHATES-EG, ALKALI METAL XANTHATES, VEGADEX HERBICIDE VIA A DITHIOCARBAMATE, & OTHER DITHIOCARBAMATES; SOLVENT-EG, FOR CLEANING & EXTRACTIONS; AGENT IN METAL TREATMENT & PLATING-EG, FOR GOLD & NICKEL CORROSION INHIBITOR; POLYMERIZATION INHIBITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE; AGENT IN REMOVAL OF METALS FROM WASTE WATER; REGENERATOR FOR TRANSITION METAL SULFIDE CATALYSTS; DEVELOPMENT RESTRAINER FOR INSTANT COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY. CHEM INT FOR ADHESIVES USED IN FOOD PACKAGING; CATALYST & CATALYST ADJUVANT & ACTIVATOR; VETERINARY ANTHELMINTIC; CHEM INT FOR OTHER ORGANICS-EG, 2-THIOTHIAZOLINES & OTHER INORGANICS-EG, RARE EARTH SULFIDES Miscellaneous application include direct uses of carbon disulfide for the cold vulcanization of rubber, as a flame lubricant in cutting glass, and for generating petroleum catalysts . (1985)] Optical glass, paints, enamels, varnishes, paint removers, tallow, explosives, rocket fuel, putty preservatives, rubber cement, solvent for waxes, lacquers, camphor, resins, vulcanized rubber and pesticide intermediates. Food-related uses incl preservation of fresh fruit, in adhesive compositions for food packaging, and as a solvent in the extraction of growth inhibitors. Insecticide used for fumigation of nursery stock and for soil treatment against insects and nematodes. Former use Used for fumigation in airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storages, bins, grain elevators, railroad boxcars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills. Former use Used as seed treatment on conifers. USED IN THE XANTHATION OF CELLULOSE IN THE PREPARATION OF VISCOSE Manufacture of flotation agents
Consumption Patterns CHEM INT FOR RAYON, 40%; CELLOPHANE, 18%; CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, 15%; OTHER USES, 27% (1982) Rayon, 40%; cellophane (10% carbon tetrachloride), 25%; rubber chemicals, 10%; miscellaneous (including pesticides and paraffin solvent), 15% (1984) Estimate CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon disulfide. Carbon tetrachloride, 38%; rayon, 34%; rubber chemicals, 7%; cellophane and other regenerated cellulosics, 6%; agricultural chemicals, 5%; miscellaneous, 10%. CHEMICAL PROFILE: Carbon disulfide. Demand: 1988: 400 million lb; 1989: 390 million lb; 1993 projected/: 325 million lb. (Includes imports, which totaled 2.8 million lb in 1987; exports are negligible.)
Apparent Color MOBILE LIQUID ; Clear, colorless or faintly yellow liquid
Odor PUREST DISTILLATES HAVE SWEET, PLEASING, & ETHEREAL ODOR USUAL COMMERCIAL AND REAGENT GRADES ARE FOUL SMELLING ; When pure, carbon disulfide has sweetish aromatic odor similar to that of chloroform.
Boiling Point 46.5 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point -111.5 DEG C
Molecular Weight 76.14
Density 1.2632 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 0.1 TO 0.2 PPM Detection, odor, in air; purity not specified: 2.60x10-3 mg/l (gas). Recognition, odor, in air; purity not specified: 2.10x10-1 ppm. Odor Low: 0.0243 mg/m Odor High: 23.1 mg/m
Sensitivity Data Severely irritating to eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Skin sensitization may occur.
Environmental Impact Carbon disulfide is a natural product of anaerobic biodegradation and is released to the atmosphere from oceans and land masses. Geothermal sources also contribute to carbon disulfide emissions. It also may be released as emissions and in wastewater during its production and use as in the production of viscose rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride, and as a solvent. In the past it was also used as a fumigant. If released on land, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost by volatilization. It may also readily leach into the ground where it may biodegrade. If released into water, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost due to volatilization (half-life 2.6 hr in a model river). Adsorption to sediment and bioconcentration in fish should not be significant. In the atmosphere carbon disulfide degrades by reacting with atomic oxygen and photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life 6-9 days). The soil may be a natural sink for the chemical by adsorbing and subsequently biodegrading it. Exposure to carbon disulfide is mostly occupational and primarily by inhalation. Only workers in the viscose rayon industry are exposed to high concn. The general population may be exposed to carbon disulfide from ambient air as well as food items containing grain that has been fumigated with the chemical.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on land, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost by volatilization. Since it has a low adsorptivity to soil, it should also readily leach into the ground where there is some evidence that it may biodegrade. AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, carbon disulfide will be primarily lost due to volatilization (half-life 2.6 hr in a model river). Adsorption to sediment should not be significant. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: In the atmosphere, carbon disulfide reacts with atomic oxygen and photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with half-lives of 9 and 5.9-8.0 days, respectively(3-4). The action of soil in adsorbing and degrading gaseous carbon disulfide demonstrates that soil may be a natural sink for the chemical . If the atmospheric concn of carbon disulfied at 6.1 km altitude is typical for marine boundry layer levels, the sharp decrease in concn at higher altitudes supports the concept of a photochemical lifetime of a month or less in the troposphere .
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Drinking water samples from nine cities in the US and one rural well contained no carbon disulfide (no detection limit stated) . It was detected, but no quantified in New Oreleans as well as Miami and Cincinnati drinking water . SURFACE WATER: The mean concn of carbon disulfide in the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean of Ireland are 0.52 and 0.78 parts/trillion, respectively . The mean concn in stagnant bay water was 5.4 parts/trillion . Water samples from 82 stations in Lake Ontario and 17 in the lower Niagara River were analyzed for volatile organics . Two river samples contained 25 parts/trillion of carbon disulfide while the other station contained <20 parts/trillion, the detection limit . Eleven lake samples contained quantifiable amounts of carbon disulfide whose median and max concn was 400 and 3900 parts/trillion, respectively . Half of the other samples contained trace quantities of the chemical and the other stations contained <80 parts/trillion, the detection limit . Carbon disulfide was prominent in Toronto Harbour, with lower levels in Hamilton Harbor and Oak Orchard Creek . In another study, carbon disulfide was detected but not quantified in the central basin of Lake Erie, the Niagara River, and open waters of Lake Ontario and absent from the western basin of Lake Ontario . EFFL: In a comprehensive survey of wastewater from 4000 industrial and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) sponsored by the Effluent Guidelines Division of the US EPA, carbon disulfide was identified in discharges of the following industrial category (frequency of occurrence; median concn in ppb): leather tanning (1; 7.5), paint and ink (4; 1078.6), organics and plastics (30; 1654.3), plastics and synthetics (4; 7075.4), pulp and paper (2; 215.6), pesticides manufacture (1; 88.8), publicly owned treatment works (11; 45.8) . The highest effluent concn was 18,943 ppb in the plastics and synthetics industry . In a survey of 63 industrial waste water effluents, carbon disulfide was identified in 8 samples, 6 of which were <10 ppb and 2 between 10 and 100 ppb . The concn of carbon disulfide in offgas from two oil shale retorting processes were 24 ppm and 13 ppm . Carbon disulfide was found in both the influent and effluent of a large community septic tank . The combined concentration of carbon disulfide and dichloromethane in the effluent, which was 10 ppb, was much higher than that in the enfluent and reflected the presence of anaerobic processes in the sewer line or septic tank .

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