SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 75252
CASRN 75-25-2
SynonymsBromoform
Tribromomethane
Methane, tribromo-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 502.2
EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 601
EPA Method 624
EPA Method 8010
EPA Method 8021
EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaCHBr3

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use USED FOR SYNTH OF PHARMACEUTICALS; USED IN SHIPBUILDING, AIRCRAFT, & AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES INGREDIENT IN FIRE-RESISTANT CHEMICALS & GAUGE FLUID CHEM INTERMED FOR ORGANIC SYNTHESIS; SOLVENT FOR WAXES, GREASES, & OILS; REAGENT FOR GRAPHITE ORE FRACTIONATION Medication: sedative Medication: antitussive Medication: antiseptic Used as a heavy liquid floatation agent in mineral separation, sedimentary petrographical surveys, and purification of materials such as quartz; Used as an industrial solvent in liquid-solvent extractions, in nuclear magnetic resonance studies; Used as a catalyst, initiator, or sensitizer in polymer reactions, and in vulcanization of rubber.
Apparent Color HEAVY LIQUID; HEXAGONAL SCALES; COLORLESS TO YELLOW LIQ
Odor CHLOROFORM ODOR
Boiling Point 149.5 DEG C @ 15 MM HG
Melting Point 8.3 DEG C
Molecular Weight 252.73
Density 2.8899 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration In water: detection: 0.3 mg/kg In air: 4.80X10 8 molecules/cu cm
Sensitivity Data EXPOSURE TO BROMOFORM VAPOR CAUSES IRRITATION OF RESPIRATORY TRACT, PHARYNX, LARYNX . Bromoform can cause irritation of the eyes and nose.
Environmental Impact ?Tribromomethane is released to the environment by industrial activities involving bromine and is formed during the chlorination of water, perhaps by the haloform reaction. Release to soil will likely result in leaching to groundwater due to the weak adsorption of tribromomethane to soil; volatilization from moist soil surfaces should also occur. Anaerobic biodegradation may occur, but aerobic biodegradation is not expected to be significant. Hydrolysis is expected to be slow. Release of tribromomethane to the atmosphere will result in the reaction of tribromomethane with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of 1.45 yrs. Direct photolysis in the troposphere is not expected to be significant, but may occur in the stratosphere. Human exposure to tribromomethane will most likely occur due to the ingestion of drinking water or air contaminated with tribromomethane. (SRC
Environmental Fate Polyhalomethanes, including dibromomethane and tribromomethane, have been detected in surface water of the North and South Atlantic, in air samples collected in the lower marine and continental troposphere and in rain as well, collected in southern Germany. ?TERRESTRIAL FATE: The tribromomethane content of secondary wastewater decreased by >10% following percolation through soil treatment basins . The residence time in the basins was 8 hr . Tribromomethane is expected to bind weakly to soil and may, therefore, leach to groundwater. Anaerobic biodegradation may occur, but aerobic biodegradation is not expected to be significant. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be significant ?AQUATIC FATE: The primary fate of tribromomethane in water is expected to be volatilization. Anaerobic biodegradation may also occur but aerobic biodegradation is not expected to be significant. Bioconcentration and hydrolysis (half-life = 686 years) are not expected to be significant ?ATMOSPHERIC FATE: A half-life of 1.45 years was estimated for the reaction of tribromomethane with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere . Direct photolysis in the troposphere is not expected to be a significant degradation process
Drinking Water Impact The EPA has identified at least ten halogenated methanes in finished drinking waters in the USA as of 1975. For tribromomethane, 26 of the 80 cities had positive results. The minimum concentration was 8.0X10-4 mg/l and the maximum concentration was 9.2X10-2 mg/l. ?SURFACE WATER: Eugene, OR - 1% samples pos, 1 ug/L . New Jersey - 604 samples, 32.6% pos, 3.7 ppb maximum . New Jersey - 0.6 ug/L mean . New Orleans/Baton Rouge - not detected-0.57 ug/L, 0.25 ug/L mean . Delaware -280 ppb maximum . Niagara River (lower) - not detected-6 ng/L . Lake Ontario - not detected-7 ng/L ?SURFACE WATER: Allegheny River (at Pittsburgh, PA) - 501 samples, 1.4% pos, 2 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L and 5 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at West View, OH) - 113 samples, 9.7% pos, 10 at 0.1- 1.0 ug/L and 1 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Wheeling, WV) - 539 samples, 0.7% pos, 3 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L, 1 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Parkersburg, WV) - 264 samples, 1.5% pos, 4 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Kanawha River (at St. Albans, WV) - 257 samples, 1.5% pos, 4 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Kanawha River (at St. Albans, WV) - 257 samples, 31.5% pos, 70 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L, 11 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Huntington, WV) - 530 samples, 17.4% pos, 84 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L, 8 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Portsmouth, OH) - 451 samples, 2.0% pos, 6 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L, 3 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Cincinnati, OH) - 717 samples, 0.3% pos, 2 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Louisville, KY) - 712 samples, 0.4% pos, 3 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L . Ohio River (at Evansville, IN) - 632 samples. 0.9% pos, 5 at 0.1-1.0 ug/L, 1 at 1.0-10.0 ug/L . Tribromomethane was detected but not quantified in surface water samples taken in Narragansett Bay, RI ?DRINKING WATER: Various US water treatment plants (80) -not detected-92 ug/L . Unspecified US cities - 12 ug/L mean (of positives), <0.3 ug/L median of all samples . Delaware - 20 ppb in drinking water wells . Tribromomethane was detected but not qualified in drinking water samples taken in Washington, DC , Philadelphia, PA , unspecified US drinking water(6), Japan(7), England(8) ?GROUNDWATER: New Jersey - 1072 samples, 21.9% pos, 34.3 ppb maximum . Delaware - 20 ppb in drinking water wells . Unspecified, randomly selected US sites serving <10,000 persons - 280 samples, 15.7% pos, 2.4 ug/L median (of positives), 54 ug/L maximum . Unspecified, randomly selected US sites serving >10,000 persons - 186 samples, 30.6% pos, 3.8 ug/L median (of positives), 50 ug/L maximum . Unspecified, non-randomly selected US sites serving <10,000 persons - 321 samples, 27.4% pos, 3.7 ug/L median (of positives), 110 ug/L maximum . Unspecified, non-randomly selected US sites serving >10,000 persons - 158 samples, 38.0% pos, 5.1 ug/L median (of positives), 68 ug/L maximum . Tribromomethane was detected but not quantified in groundwater samples taken in New Jersey ?RAIN/SNOW: Oregon (SW of Portland, OR) - Rain samples, not detected-0.50 ng/L, 0.3 ng/L mean EFFL: ?Tribromomethane residues in treated wastewater effluents from several industries were as follows . Nonferrous metals manufacturing - 49 samples, 6.1% pos, not detected-44 ug/L, 2.1 ug/L mean; Pulp and Paperboard Mills - 18 samples, 5.5% pos, not detected-62 ug/L, 10 ug/L mean . Tribromomethane was detected but not quantified in front and tail brine from bromine industries in El Dorado, AR and Magnolia, AR , and in secondary effluents from wastewater treatment plant

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