SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 75343
CASRN 75-34-3
Synonyms1,1-Dichloroethane
Ethylidene dichloride
Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 502.2
EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 601
EPA Method 624
EPA Method 8010
EPA Method 8021
EPA Method 8260

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use AS A SOLVENT FOR PLASTICS, OILS AND FATS; CLEANING AGENT; DEGREASER; IN RUBBER CEMENTING; AS A FUMIGANT AND INSECTICIDE SPRAY; IN FABRIC SPREADING; IN FIRE EXTINGUISHING; MEDICATION: FORMERLY USED AS AN ANESTHETIC. CHEM INT FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE, A SOLVENT. Extractant for heat-sensitive substances. Used in the manufacture of high vacuum rubber. Thermal cracking of 1,1-dichloroethane produces vinyl chloride at 400-500 deg C and about 1500 psi. Coupling agent in antiknock gasoline; in paint, varnish & paint removers; in ore flotation.
Apparent Color OILY LIQUID ; COLORLESS LIQUID
Odor CHLOROFORM-LIKE ODOR ; AROMATIC ETHEREAL ODOR
Molecular Weight 98.97
Density 1.175 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration Threshold concn: 120 ppm (no specific isomer); 200 ppm (no specific isomer). 445.5 mg/cu m (odor low) 810 mg/cu m (odor high).
Sensitivity Data IRRITATING TO THE EYES AND THE RESPIRATORY TRACT .
Environmental Impact 1,1-Dichloroethane is released into the environment as fugitive emissions and in wastewater during its production and use as a chemical intermediate and solvent. If released on land, it will be removed rapidly by volatilization, although it may also leach into groundwater where its fate is unknown. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms will not be important. If released in water it will be removed by volatilization with a half-life of 6-9 days, 5-8 days, and 24-32 hr, respectively in a typical pond, lake, or river. In the atmosphere, it will degrade (half-life 62 days) by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals, and it will be scavenged by rain. Human exposure will be by inhalation to workers and those living or working near source areas.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on soil, 1,1-dichloroethane will be rapidly lost by evaporation. Due to its low adsorptivity, there is a possibility that it will leach into the groundwater. No abiotic degradation of 1,1-dichloroethane was observed in experiments lasting over 1 year(1,SRC). AQUATIC FATE: The volatilization half-life of 1,1-dichloroethane from a typical pond, lake, or river is 6-9 days, 5-8 days, and 24-32 hr, respectively. This will be the principal removal mechanism; adsorption to sediment, biodegradation, and hydrolysis should be insignificant by comparison. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released into the atmosphere, 1,1-dichloroethane will degrade by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life 62 days). There will be considerable dispersal before it degrades. 1,1-Dichloroethane is moderately soluble and will be washed out by rain. Aquatic and Atmospheric Fate: Chloroethanes are expected to be present in industrial air and water emissions. They volatilize rapidly from surface water and persist in urban atmospheres. Hydrolysis and biodegradation are expected to be slow. Chloroethanes
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Not detected in drinking water of Love Canal residents . USA Groundwater Supply Survey (954 supplies derived from groundwater chosen both randomly and on the basis that they may contain VOC's) - 41 samples positive, 0.6 ppb median of positive, 4.2 ppb maximum . Bank-filtered tap water from the Rhine River in the Netherlands 500 parts per trillion, maximum . 30 Canadian treatment plants serving all large centers of population 5 ppb, mean, 29 ppb, maximum, 11% detection frequency in Aug-Sept; <1 ppb mean, 10 ppb maximum 4% detection frequency in Nov-Dec . UK: Detected in 1 of 14 water supplies tested - source of water was river/lowland reservoir . According to federal studies, 18% of monitored drinking water wells contained 1,1-dichloroethane(6). The highest reported concn in wells was 11.3 ppm while the maximum surface concn reported was 0.2 ppb(6). Iowa (127 wells from 58 public water supplies) 5 wells (4 supplies) contained residues 1-24 ppb, and 2 supplies had positive values in finished water(7). Polluted drinking water well in Maine 7 ppb(8). Detected, not quantified in 11 of 1000 Wisconsin wells(9). GROUNDWATER: Potomac-Raritan Magothy aquifer system along the Delaware River in SW New Jersey (315 wells) 6.6% of wells positive . Not detected (detection limit 1 ppb) in monitoring wells underlying the Amphenol metal plating plant in Broadview IL . Minnesota: Found in groundwater underlying 7 of 13 municipal landfills with suspected groundwater contamination 0.5-1900 ppb but not in 7 others with no suspected contamination (detection limit not specified) . Groundwater around Miami Drum Disposal site (Biscayne Aquifer - water supply for Dade County, FL) 2.6-14 ppb with the higher concn at 13-31 m depth and lower concn at 3 m . Detected in Love Canal water, sediment, and/or soil samples . SURFACE WATER: Lake Ontario Basin: Detected in Genesse River sample but absent in Niagara River and open water of Lake Ontario . Ohio River System (1980-81, 8 stations on mainstream and 3 on tributaries, 4972 samples) 156 (3.1%) positive of which 122 were between 0.1 and 1.0 ppb, 33 between 1.0 and 10 ppb and 1 > 10 ppb . Ohio River System (1978-79, 8 stations, 842 samples on mainstream; 2 stations, 235 samples on tributaries) 3.9% of samples had detectable levels of 1,1-dichloroethane on mainstream that were < 1.0 ppb and 5.3% of samples from the tributaries had detectable levels that were < 1.0 ppb and 0.3% that were between 1.0 and 10.0 ppb . Raw water for 30 Canadian water treatment plants - 2 ppb, mean, 33 ppb max, 19% detection frequency in Aug-Sept; < 1.0 ppb mean, 11 ppb max, 13% detection frequency in Nov-Dec . Drinking water in New Jersey contained 105-142 ng/l. EFFL: Municipal landfill leachate in Minnesota and Wisconsin - 9 of 13 positive, 0.5-6300 ppb . National Urban Runoff Program in which 86 samples from 19 cities throughout the US were analyzed: 4% of samples positive, 1.5-3 ppb, detected only in Long Island, NY and Eugene, OR . Treated waste water from the following industries contained 1,1-dichloroethane (industry (mean concn)): coil coating (10 ppb); nonferrous metals manufacturing (0.6 ppb); organic chemical manufacturing/plastics (9.1 ppb); paint formulation (95 ppb); rubber processing (56 ppb) . Additionally, untreated wastewater from the following industries contained 1,1-dichloroethane (industry (mean concn) battery manufacturing (10 ppb); metal finishing (480 ppb); pharmaceutical manufacturing (13 ppb); and pulp and paperboard mills (12 ppb) . Not detected in the final effluents of the Los Angeles City (Hyperion), Orange County, CA (OCSD), and San Diego City (Point Loma) treatment plants at a detection limit of 10 parts per trillion . Los Angeles County (JWPCP) municipal wastewater (final effluent) 3.5 ppb .

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