|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||1,1-Dichloroethane||Ethylidene dichloride||Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-
||EPA Method 502.2||EPA Method 524.2
||EPA Method 601
||EPA Method 624
||EPA Method 8010
||EPA Method 8021
||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| AS A SOLVENT FOR PLASTICS, OILS AND FATS; CLEANING AGENT;
DEGREASER; IN RUBBER CEMENTING; AS A FUMIGANT AND INSECTICIDE SPRAY;
IN FABRIC SPREADING; IN FIRE EXTINGUISHING; MEDICATION: FORMERLY USED
AS AN ANESTHETIC.
CHEM INT FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE, A SOLVENT.
Extractant for heat-sensitive substances.
Used in the manufacture of high vacuum rubber.
Thermal cracking of 1,1-dichloroethane produces vinyl chloride at 400-500 deg C and about 1500
Coupling agent in antiknock gasoline; in paint, varnish & paint removers; in ore flotation.
|Apparent Color|| OILY LIQUID ; COLORLESS LIQUID
|Odor|| CHLOROFORM-LIKE ODOR ; AROMATIC ETHEREAL ODOR
|Molecular Weight|| 98.97
|Density|| 1.175 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Threshold concn: 120 ppm (no specific isomer); 200 ppm (no specific isomer).
445.5 mg/cu m (odor low) 810 mg/cu m (odor high).
|Sensitivity Data|| IRRITATING TO THE EYES AND THE RESPIRATORY TRACT .
|Environmental Impact|| 1,1-Dichloroethane is released into the environment as fugitive emissions and in
wastewater during its production and use as a chemical intermediate and solvent. If released on
land, it will be removed rapidly by volatilization, although it may also leach into groundwater
where its fate is unknown. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms will not be important. If
released in water it will be removed by volatilization with a half-life of 6-9 days, 5-8 days, and
24-32 hr, respectively in a typical pond, lake, or river. In the atmosphere, it will degrade (half-life
62 days) by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals, and it will be scavenged by
rain. Human exposure will be by inhalation to workers and those living or working near source
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on soil, 1,1-dichloroethane will be rapidly lost by
evaporation. Due to its low adsorptivity, there is a possibility that it will leach into the
groundwater. No abiotic degradation of 1,1-dichloroethane was observed in experiments lasting
over 1 year(1,SRC).
AQUATIC FATE: The volatilization half-life of 1,1-dichloroethane from a typical pond, lake, or
river is 6-9 days, 5-8 days, and 24-32 hr, respectively. This will be the principal removal
mechanism; adsorption to sediment, biodegradation, and hydrolysis should be insignificant by
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released into the atmosphere, 1,1-dichloroethane will degrade by
reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life 62 days). There will be
considerable dispersal before it degrades. 1,1-Dichloroethane is moderately soluble and will be
washed out by rain.
Aquatic and Atmospheric Fate: Chloroethanes are expected to be present in industrial air and
water emissions. They volatilize rapidly from surface water and persist in urban atmospheres.
Hydrolysis and biodegradation are expected to be slow. Chloroethanes
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Not detected in drinking water of Love Canal residents . USA
Groundwater Supply Survey (954 supplies derived from groundwater chosen both randomly and
on the basis that they may contain VOC's) - 41 samples positive, 0.6 ppb median of positive, 4.2
ppb maximum . Bank-filtered tap water from the Rhine River in the Netherlands 500 parts per
trillion, maximum . 30 Canadian treatment plants serving all large centers of population 5 ppb,
mean, 29 ppb, maximum, 11% detection frequency in Aug-Sept; <1 ppb mean, 10 ppb maximum
4% detection frequency in Nov-Dec . UK: Detected in 1 of 14 water supplies tested - source of
water was river/lowland reservoir . According to federal studies, 18% of monitored drinking
water wells contained 1,1-dichloroethane(6). The highest reported concn in wells was 11.3 ppm
while the maximum surface concn reported was 0.2 ppb(6). Iowa (127 wells from 58 public water
supplies) 5 wells (4 supplies) contained residues 1-24 ppb, and 2 supplies had positive values in
finished water(7). Polluted drinking water well in Maine 7 ppb(8). Detected, not quantified in 11
of 1000 Wisconsin wells(9).
GROUNDWATER: Potomac-Raritan Magothy aquifer system along the Delaware River in SW
New Jersey (315 wells) 6.6% of wells positive . Not detected (detection limit 1 ppb) in
monitoring wells underlying the Amphenol metal plating plant in Broadview IL . Minnesota:
Found in groundwater underlying 7 of 13 municipal landfills with suspected groundwater
contamination 0.5-1900 ppb but not in 7 others with no suspected contamination (detection limit
not specified) . Groundwater around Miami Drum Disposal site (Biscayne Aquifer - water
supply for Dade County, FL) 2.6-14 ppb with the higher concn at 13-31 m depth and lower concn
at 3 m . Detected in Love Canal water, sediment, and/or soil samples .
SURFACE WATER: Lake Ontario Basin: Detected in Genesse River sample but absent in
Niagara River and open water of Lake Ontario . Ohio River System (1980-81, 8 stations on
mainstream and 3 on tributaries, 4972 samples) 156 (3.1%) positive of which 122 were between
0.1 and 1.0 ppb, 33 between 1.0 and 10 ppb and 1 > 10 ppb . Ohio River System (1978-79, 8
stations, 842 samples on mainstream; 2 stations, 235 samples on tributaries) 3.9% of samples had
detectable levels of 1,1-dichloroethane on mainstream that were < 1.0 ppb and 5.3% of samples
from the tributaries had detectable levels that were < 1.0 ppb and 0.3% that were between 1.0 and
10.0 ppb . Raw water for 30 Canadian water treatment plants - 2 ppb, mean, 33 ppb max, 19%
detection frequency in Aug-Sept; < 1.0 ppb mean, 11 ppb max, 13% detection frequency in
Drinking water in New Jersey contained 105-142 ng/l.
EFFL: Municipal landfill leachate in Minnesota and Wisconsin - 9 of 13 positive, 0.5-6300 ppb .
National Urban Runoff Program in which 86 samples from 19 cities throughout the US were
analyzed: 4% of samples positive, 1.5-3 ppb, detected only in Long Island, NY and Eugene,
OR . Treated waste water from the following industries contained 1,1-dichloroethane (industry
(mean concn)): coil coating (10 ppb); nonferrous metals manufacturing (0.6 ppb); organic
chemical manufacturing/plastics (9.1 ppb); paint formulation (95 ppb); rubber processing (56
ppb) . Additionally, untreated wastewater from the following industries contained
1,1-dichloroethane (industry (mean concn) battery manufacturing (10 ppb); metal finishing (480
ppb); pharmaceutical manufacturing (13 ppb); and pulp and paperboard mills (12 ppb) . Not
detected in the final effluents of the Los Angeles City (Hyperion), Orange County, CA (OCSD),
and San Diego City (Point Loma) treatment plants at a detection limit of 10 parts per trillion .
Los Angeles County (JWPCP) municipal wastewater (final effluent) 3.5 ppb .