SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 75354
CASRN 75-35-4
Synonyms1,1-Dichloroethene
1,1-Dichloroethylene
Vinylidene chloride
Ethene, 1,1-dichloro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 502.2
EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 601
EPA Method 624
EPA Method 8010
EPA Method 8021
EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaC2H2Cl2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use Used as comonomer, primarily with vinyl chloride. IN ADHESIVES; COMPONENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS. In the synthesis of the refrigerant 142b, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, is synthesized from 1,1-difluoroethane, vinylidene chloride & 1,1,1-trichloroethane. A monomeric intermediate in the production of plastics, particularly the saran types. COMONOMER, ESP FOR FOOD PACKAGING & COATING RESINS. COMONOMER FOR MODACRYLIC FIBERS; UNISOLATED CHEMICAL INTERMEDIATE FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE. Chemical intermediate in production of chloracetyl chloride.
Consumption Patterns Virtually all of the vinylidene chloride produced is used in the production of copolymers with vinyl chloride or acrylonitrile. A small percentage (4%) of vinylidene chloride is used as chemical intermediates (1985).
Apparent Color Colorless liquid
Odor MILD, SWEET ODOR RESEMBLING THAT OF CHLOROFORM
Boiling Point 31.7 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
Melting Point -122.5 DEG C
Molecular Weight 96.94
Density 1.2129 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration MOST PERSONS CAN DETECT MILD BUT DEFINITE ODOR @ 1000 PPM IN AIR. SOME CAN DETECT IT @ 500 PPM. VAPORS CONTAINING DECOMP PRODUCTS HAVE DISAGREEABLE ODOR AND CAN BE DETECTED @ CONCN CONSIDERABLY LESS THAN 500 PPM. NEITHER ODOR NOR IRRITATING PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE IS ADEQUATE TO WARN OF EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE. Odor index @ 20 deg C: 1,300 Odor threshold (air) = 2000-5500 mg/cu m
Sensitivity Data Vapor is irritating to eyes, nose, and throat. SKIN CONTACT WITH VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE CAUSES IRRITATION, WHICH MAY PARTLY BE DUE TO HYDROQUINONE MONOMETHYL ETHER INHIBITOR.
Environmental Impact Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethylene) enters the atmosphere from its production and use in the manufacture of plastics such as saran wrap. It is released in wastewater from plastics manufacturing and metal finishing. Releases to water will primarily be lost to the atmosphere through evaporation. Once in the atmosphere it will degrade rapidly by photooxidation with a half-life of 11 hours in relatively clean air or under 2 hours in polluted air. If spilled on land, part of the vinylidene chloride will evaporate and part will leach into the groundwater where its fate is unknown, but degradation is expected to be slow based upon microcosm studies. Vinylidene chloride would not be expected to bioconcentrate into fish. Major human exposure is from occupational atmospheres. The general population may be exposed to low levels of vinylidene chloride in ambient air, indoor air, contaminated drinking water, and food which has come in contact with plastic wrap which contains residual monomer.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: When spilled on land, vinylidene chloride will be lost partially by evaporation and partially by percolation into the groundwater. Under anaerobic conditions, such as may occur in groundwater degradation to vinylidene chloride may occur after many months. AQUATIC FATE: When released into water, vinylidene chloride will primarily be lost by evaporation into the atmosphere with a half-life of 1-6 days. Little of the chemical would be lost by adsorption onto the sediment. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Vinylidene chloride is a photochemically reactive compound and when released to the atmosphere, it will degrade by reaction with hydroxyl radicals with a half-life of 11 hours. Under photochemical smog conditions, its half-life is much shorter (<2 hr).
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: In a nationwide survey, vinylidene chloride was detected in 7.1% of finished supplies from groundwater sources . In 1979, the highest reported concn was 0.1 ppb(1,3). Of 103 USA cities sampled, 1.9% pos, 0.36 mean ppb mean, 0.2-0.51 ppb range in finished surface water . 13 USA cities sampled, 7.7% pos, 0.2 ppb mean and max, in finished groundwater(2,5). In a screening of 1174 community wells and 617 private wells in Wisconsin, 1 community and 3 private wells had detectable levels of vinylidene chloride(6). USA Groundwater Supply Survey (945 supplies derived from groundwater chosen both randomly and on the basis that they may contain VOCs) - 24 samples positive for vinylidene chloride, max 6.3 ppb(7). Mean and max conc of vinylidene chloride in 2 New Jersey supplies serving roughly 100,000 persons each ranged from 0.1-0.2 and 0.9-2.5 ppb, respectively(8). GROUNDWATER: Contaminated drinking water wells in New Jersey, Massachusetts and Maine had maximum vinylidene chloride concentrations of 280, 118, and 70 ppb, respectively . A 13-US city survey of raw groundwater supplies resulted in 15.4% pos, and 0.5 ppb avg and max . Miami, Florida had 0.1 ppb vinylidene chloride in their raw drinking water supply . As reported by Aerojet-General Corp, vinylidene chloride was detected in several domestic and industrial well water samples in Sacramento, CA . SURFACE WATER: 3 tributaries and 7 of 8 sites on the Ohio River pos (4972 samples, 343 pos), 304 samples 0.1 to 1.0 ppb, 36 samples 1.0 to 10 ppb, and 3 samples >10 ppb . 2 of 4 cities with surface water contaminated with industrial, municipal, agricultural, and natural waste as a source of drinking water supply contained vinylidene chloride in the raw water; of the pos supplies one contained <0.1 ppb and one was not quantified . In a survey of 105 USA cities using surface water supplies, no vinylidene chloride was detected in the raw water . EFFL: Detected, not quantified in effluent from USA latex and chemical manufacturing plants(1,2). 32 ppb - discharged from a chemical manufacturing plant, the Netherlands(1,2). Samples from the 4 largest, publicly owned, treatment plants in Southern Calif were as follows: primary effluent, 3 of 4 pos, < 10 to 20 ppb, secondary effluent, 2 of 3 pos, < 10 ppb, 7 mile sludge and centrate, 2 of 3 pos, < 10 ppb . Detected in 1 of 2 municipal treatment plants . Industries with mean effluent conc > 100 ppb - metal finishing (760 ppb), non-ferrous metal mfg and organic chemicals mfg/plastics . 17% of 48 samples of influent to a sewage treatment plant in US pos, 5.0 ppb avg when found above detection limit . In a comprehensive survey of wastewater from 4000 industrial and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) sponsored by the Effluent Guidelines Div of the U.S. EPA, vinylidene chloride was identified in discharges of the following industrial category (frequency of occurrence, median conc in ppb): timber products (2; 10.8), steam electric (2; 38.8), petroleum refining (1; 8.0), nonferrous metals (3; 2.9), paint and ink (1; 4.6), printing and publishing (1; 152.6), organics and plastics (31; 35.7), inorganic chemicals (2; 20.7), pulp and paper (4; 9.3), rubber processing (1; 137.7), auto and other laundries (6; 32.8), pesticides manufacture (2; 246.8), organic chemicals (2; 675.8), transportation equipment (1; 238.0), publicly owned treatment works (40; 23.0) . The highest effluent conc was 3,636 ppb in the auto and other laundries industry .

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