|Use|| Used as comonomer, primarily with vinyl chloride.
IN ADHESIVES; COMPONENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS.
In the synthesis of the refrigerant 142b, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, is synthesized from
1,1-difluoroethane, vinylidene chloride & 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
A monomeric intermediate in the production of plastics, particularly the saran types.
COMONOMER, ESP FOR FOOD PACKAGING & COATING RESINS.
COMONOMER FOR MODACRYLIC FIBERS; UNISOLATED CHEMICAL
INTERMEDIATE FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE.
Chemical intermediate in production of chloracetyl chloride.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: In a nationwide survey, vinylidene chloride was detected in 7.1%
of finished supplies from groundwater sources . In 1979, the highest reported concn was 0.1
ppb(1,3). Of 103 USA cities sampled, 1.9% pos, 0.36 mean ppb mean, 0.2-0.51 ppb range in
finished surface water . 13 USA cities sampled, 7.7% pos, 0.2 ppb mean and max, in finished
groundwater(2,5). In a screening of 1174 community wells and 617 private wells in Wisconsin, 1
community and 3 private wells had detectable levels of vinylidene chloride(6). USA Groundwater
Supply Survey (945 supplies derived from groundwater chosen both randomly and on the basis
that they may contain VOCs) - 24 samples positive for vinylidene chloride, max 6.3 ppb(7). Mean
and max conc of vinylidene chloride in 2 New Jersey supplies serving roughly 100,000 persons
each ranged from 0.1-0.2 and 0.9-2.5 ppb, respectively(8).
GROUNDWATER: Contaminated drinking water wells in New Jersey, Massachusetts and
Maine had maximum vinylidene chloride concentrations of 280, 118, and 70 ppb, respectively .
A 13-US city survey of raw groundwater supplies resulted in 15.4% pos, and 0.5 ppb avg and
max . Miami, Florida had 0.1 ppb vinylidene chloride in their raw drinking water supply . As
reported by Aerojet-General Corp, vinylidene chloride was detected in several domestic and
industrial well water samples in Sacramento, CA .
SURFACE WATER: 3 tributaries and 7 of 8 sites on the Ohio River pos (4972 samples, 343
pos), 304 samples 0.1 to 1.0 ppb, 36 samples 1.0 to 10 ppb, and 3 samples >10 ppb . 2 of 4
cities with surface water contaminated with industrial, municipal, agricultural, and natural waste
as a source of drinking water supply contained vinylidene chloride in the raw water; of the pos
supplies one contained <0.1 ppb and one was not quantified . In a survey of 105 USA cities
using surface water supplies, no vinylidene chloride was detected in the raw water .
EFFL: Detected, not quantified in effluent from USA latex and chemical manufacturing
plants(1,2). 32 ppb - discharged from a chemical manufacturing plant, the Netherlands(1,2).
Samples from the 4 largest, publicly owned, treatment plants in Southern Calif were as follows:
primary effluent, 3 of 4 pos, < 10 to 20 ppb, secondary effluent, 2 of 3 pos, < 10 ppb, 7 mile
sludge and centrate, 2 of 3 pos, < 10 ppb . Detected in 1 of 2 municipal treatment plants .
Industries with mean effluent conc > 100 ppb - metal finishing (760 ppb), non-ferrous metal mfg
and organic chemicals mfg/plastics . 17% of 48 samples of influent to a sewage treatment plant
in US pos, 5.0 ppb avg when found above detection limit .
In a comprehensive survey of wastewater from 4000 industrial and publicly owned treatment
works (POTWs) sponsored by the Effluent Guidelines Div of the U.S. EPA, vinylidene chloride
was identified in discharges of the following industrial category (frequency of occurrence, median
conc in ppb): timber products (2; 10.8), steam electric (2; 38.8), petroleum refining (1; 8.0),
nonferrous metals (3; 2.9), paint and ink (1; 4.6), printing and publishing (1; 152.6), organics and
plastics (31; 35.7), inorganic chemicals (2; 20.7), pulp and paper (4; 9.3), rubber processing (1;
137.7), auto and other laundries (6; 32.8), pesticides manufacture (2; 246.8), organic chemicals
(2; 675.8), transportation equipment (1; 238.0), publicly owned treatment works (40; 23.0) .
The highest effluent conc was 3,636 ppb in the auto and other laundries industry .