|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
|Synonyms||Trichlorofluoromethane||Fluorotrichloromethane||Methane, trichlorofluoro-||CFC 11
||EPA Method 502.2||EPA Method 524.2
||EPA Method 601
||EPA Method 624
||EPA Method 8010
||EPA Method 8021
||EPA Method 8260
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| USED IN MFR OF CLEANING CMPD & IN FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Chemical intermediate, solvent
BLOWING AGENT IN PRODN OF POLYURETHANE FOAMS; REFRIGERANT;
Freon 11 is used in electric insulation since it has high electric strength, inhibits partial discharges,
and tends to extinguish power arcs.
Propellant in aerosols for insecticides, floor waxes, paint, cosmetics, and perfumes former use
In production of polymeric resins.
Dielectric fluid in bubble chambers and in wind tunnels.
Sulfonation solvent in chemical synthesis.
USED TO PROPEL BRONCHODILATOR SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS OR
CORTICOSTERIODS FOR THE TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
/FORMERLY IN COSMETIC AEROSOL PRODUCTS.
IN REFRIGERATION MACHINERY REQUIRING REFRIGERANT EFFECTIVE AT
MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS USE FLUOROCARBONS FOR
REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING & ACCOUNT FOR MAJORITY OF
REFRIGERATION CAPABILITY IN US. FLUOROCARBONS ARE USED AS
REFRIGERANTS IN HOME APPLIANCES, MOBILE AIR CONDITIONING UNITS,
RETAIL FOOD REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS & CHILLERS. FLUOROCARBONS
|Consumption Patterns|| Refrigeration/air conditioning, 43%; foam blowing agents, 20%; polymer precursors,
13%; solvent cleaning, 12% aerosol propellants, 2%; medical equipment sterilization, 3%; other,
7%. (1991). Estimates are for CFC-11,-12,-113,-114,-115 and HCFC-22 only
REFRIGERANTS, 39%; FOAM BLOWING AGENTS, 17%; SOLVENTS, 14%;
FLUOROPOLYMERS, 14%; STERILANT GAS, 2%; AEROSOL PROPELLANTS, 2%;
FOOD FREEZANT, 1%; OTHER, 8%; EXPORTS, 3% (1985) FLUOROCARBONS (1986)]
|Apparent Color|| LIQUID @ TEMP BELOW 23.7 DEG C ; Colorless liquid
|Odor|| In concn of less than 20% (by volume in air), trichlorofluoromethane is odorless, in
higher concn, its odor is mild and somewhat ethereal.
|Boiling Point|| 23.7 DEG C @ 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| -111 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 137.38
|Density|| 1.494 @ 17.2 DEG C/4 DEG C LIQUID
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Low: 28.0 mg/cu m; High: 1170.4 mg/cu m
|Sensitivity Data|| Immediately irritating to the eye.
|Environmental Impact|| Trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11) was primarily released to the environment during its
use as a propellant in aerosol sprays. However, this use was banned in the US on Dec. 15, 1978.
Other sources of emissions include its use as a refrigerant, foaming agent for polyurethane foams,
solvent and degreaser, and fire extinguishing agent. If released in water or on land,
trichlorofluoromethane will be lost by volatilization (half-life 6.1 hr in a typical river).
Concentration profiles in oceans show that trichlorofluoromethane is primarily in surface layers,
suggesting that the oceans are not a sink for this chemical. Bioconcentration in fish is unlikely. If
released on land, trichlorofluoromethane may also pass through the soil, where it is likely to
persist for long periods of time. The troposphere is apparently also not a sink for
trichlorofluoromethane since estimates of its half-life range from 52 to 207 years. In fact the only
major sink for trichlorofluoromethane is its slow diffusion into the stratosphere where photolysis
occurs and subsequent reactions which destroy ozone. As a result of its stability,
trichlorofluoromethane is transported long distances and its concentration is fairly uniform around
the globe away from known sources. Since there are no major tropospheric sinks, the
concentration of trichlorofluoromethane had been increasing by about 10% a year in the late
1970's, a trend that seems to be leveling off as a result of its ban in aerosols. Human exposure is
occupational from ambient air although drinking
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released on soil, trichlorofluoromethane will rapidly evaporate
into the atmosphere because of its high vapor pressure as well as readily pass through soil because
of its negligible adsorption to soil.
AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, trichlorofluoromethane will be lost almost exclusively
by evaporation (half-life 6.1 hr in a typical river). Abiotic degradation, biodegradation, and
adsorption to sediment will be insignificant.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Trichlorofluoromethane is very stable in the troposphere having a
half-life of 52-207 years. It is transported long distances, being found even at the South Pole.
Some trichlorofluoromethane will be lost due to rainout but will return to the atmosphere as a
result of evaporation. The only degradation loss process is through diffusion to the stratosphere
where photolysis occurs. As a result of this latter process, ozone is destroyed. The sharp decrease
in trichlorofluoromethane concentration above the tropopause supports this conclusion.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: THEIR USE FOR AEROSOL SPRAYS WAS PROHIBITED
BECAUSE OF THEIR DEPLETING EFFECT ON STRATOSPHERIC OZONE.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Detected, not quantified .
GROUND WATER: Cluster wells at manufacturing research facility in the Northeastern US:
glacial shallow wells 80 ppb mean, median not detectable; glacial deep wells 5 ppb mean, 4 ppb
median; bedrock wells 650 ppb mean, 23 ppb median .
SURFACE WATER: Ohio River Basin (11 stations, 4972 samples) - 5.3% of samples 0.1 ppb
including 46 samples between 1 and 10 ppb and 3 > 10 ppb . 14 Heavily industrialized river
basins in US (204 sites) - 11 sites positive all in the Chicago area and Illinois River Basin 3-20
ppb . Lake Erie central and eastern basins - 34 and 46 parts/trillion average in 1977 and 1978,
respectively, with concentration uniform throughout the basin . Delaware River Basin (30 sites,
depth integrating samples) - 3% of sites had values > 1 ppb . Lake Michigan (9 sites) - 5 sites
positive, 1-20 ppb .
SEAWATER: Pacific Ocean 0.13 parts/trillion average at surface. 0.06 parts/trillion average at
300 m depth Point Reyes, CA nearshore 43 parts/trillion . Trichlorofluoromethane is most
abundant in the surface layers of the sea as opposed to the depths as was demonstrated in
concentration profiles of the Greenland and Norwegian Seas .
EFFL: Industries whose raw or treated wastewater exceed an average of 10 ug/l include: auto and
other laundries, electrical components, nonferrous metal manufacturing, coal mining,
photographic equipment/supplies and textile mills . Maximum levels at or above 100 ppb
occurred in textile mills (2100 ppb) auto and other laundries (120 ppb), and nonferrous metal
manufacturing (100 ppb) . Industrial effluents (343 sites representing all STORET stations)
0.6% positive, median < 5 ppb . National Urban Runoff Program (Nineteen cities including 11
of the 18 river basins in the contiguous USA - 86 samples) - 6% frequency of detection, 0.6-27
ppb . Los Angeles municipal wastewater < 0.3 ppb .