|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 618|
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| IN SYNTHESIS, ESP IN MFR OF METHYL VIOLET
AS RODENTICIDE; HAS BEEN USED AS CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT
FOR INSECT & RODENT CONTROL IN GRAIN ELEVATORS, BINS, & OTHER GRAIN
STORAGE PLACES, & APPLIED TO SOIL AS PRE-PLANT SOIL FUMIGANT FOR
CONTROL OF FUNGUS DISEASES SUCH AS VERTICILLIUM WILT, NEMATODES,
INSECTS, & WEED SEEDS. NOT APPROVED FOR FUMIGATION OF BEANS,
COWPEAS, PEAS, & NUTS.
FOR BEST FUMIGANT ACTION SOIL SHOULD BE MOIST FOR APPLICATION &
COVERED WITH POLYETHYLENE SHEETING FOR @ LEAST 2 DAYS FOLLOWING
APPLICATION. SOIL HAS TO BE AERATED THOROUGHLY BEFORE PLANTING TO
REMOVE INJURIOUS CONCN.AERATION TAKES 2 WK OR LONGER DEPENDING ON
SOIL TYPE & SOIL TEMP.
IT MAY BE INJECTED IN SOIL IN COMBINATION WITH XYLENE, CARBON
TETRACHLORIDE, OR ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE TO HELP DISTRIBUTE GAS.
IT IS SOMETIMES ADDED IN SMALL AMT TO OTHER COMPARATIVELY
ODORLESS FUMIGANTS TO ACT AS WARNING AGENT.
IN FIELD BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS), FUMIGATION WITH 400 KG/HA
CHLOROPICRIN SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED SHOOT WEIGHT, ROOT WEIGHT, AND
TOTAL NITROGEN UPTAKE THROUGHOUT THE SEASON AND DECREASED THE
INCIDENCE OF ROOT ROT.
FUMIGANT FOR NON-DECIDUOUS FRUITS, TOMATOES, & TOBACCO
FUMIGANT FOR POTATOES & OTHER FIELD CROPS-EG, COTTON
FUMIGANT FOR PEANUTS & SUGAR BEETS
FUMIGANT FOR DECIDUOUS FRUITS & NUTS & OTHER VEGETABLES
FUMIGANT FOR FLORAL CROPS, LAWNS, TURF, & ORNAMENTALS
FUMIGANT FOR COMMODITIES & SPACE
FUMIGANT FOR STRUCTURAL PEST CONTROL
FUMIGANT FOR OTHER USES-EG, GOVERNMENT & INDUST USES
CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (FORMER USE)
|Consumption Patterns|| FUMIGANT FOR NON-DECIDUOUS FRUITS, 44%; TOMATOES, 14%; TOBACCO,
6%; POTATOES, 3%; OTHER FIELD CROPS-EG, COTTON, PEANUTS, SUGAR BEETS,
& DECIDUOUS FRUITS & NUTS, 8%; OTHER VEGETABLES, 5%; FLORAL CROPS,
LAWNS, TURF, & ORNAMENTALS, 11%; COMMODITIES, SPACE, & STRUCTURAL
PEST CONTROL, 3%; MISCELLANEOUS SOIL FUMIGATION, 5% (1982)
|Apparent Color|| SLIGHTLY OILY LIQUID ; COLORLESS ; Faint yellow liquid.
|Odor|| INTENSE ODOR
|Boiling Point|| 112 deg C
|Melting Point|| -69.2 deg C
|Molecular Weight|| 164.39
|Density|| 1.6558 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Threshold odor concn: 1.1 ppm
Faint odor at 0.0073 mg/l
|Environmental Impact|| Chloropicrin may be released to the atmosphere resulting from its use as a fumigant,
fungicide, insecticide and tear/war gas. In the atmosphere it will be lost by photodegradation
(half-life 20 days) forming phosgene and nitrosyl chloride. It will also be removed by rain. If
spilled on earth, it will volatilize and leach into the groundwater where its fate is unknown. In
water it will volatilize (half-life 7.4 hrs. from a typical river) and photodegrade (half-life 3 days). It
would not be expected to adsorb to sediment or bioconcentrate in fish. Although its use as a
fumigant, fungicide, insecticide and tear/war gas has a high potential for exposure, no
occupational or ambient air concentration levels could be located. Chloropicrin is a contaminant in
drinking water of several U.S. cities which may result from direct contamination of the water
supply or from chlorination of other contaminants.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: If spilled on soil, chloropicrin will both rapidly volatilize and
leach into the groundwater where its fate is unknown.
AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, chloropicrin will readily volatilize (half-life 7.4 hr. from
a typical river). It will photodegrade in the surface layers of water (half-life 3 days). Chloropicrin
would not be expected to adsorb to sediment.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, chloropicrin will photodegrade with a
half-life of 20 days. Being relatively soluble in water it should be subject to wash-out by rain.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Finished drinking water survey of 5 cities with varied sources of
raw water and types of contaminants: Cincinnati 3 ppb, Philadelphia 2 ppb, Miami .4ppb, Seattle
and Ottuma, IA 0 ppb . Choropicrin is readily formed from nitromethane during chlorination .
GROUND WATER: In wells 35 and 65 m from site where chloropicrin was buried, 2.1 and .001
ppm respectively . OTHER: Swimming pool waters. 90% of 74 swimming pools in the Bonn
area, Germany, .4ppm avg. .