SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 76448
CASRN 76-44-8
SynonymsHeptachlor
4,7-Methano-1H-indene, 1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-
Velsicol-104
Drinox
Heptagran
Analytical Methods EPA Method 505
EPA Method 508
EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 608
EPA Method 617
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8081
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC10H5Cl7

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use INSECTICIDE FOR CONTROL OF COTTON BOLL WEEVIL FORMER USE INSECTICIDE FOR TERMITE CONTROL (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR CERTAIN FIELD CROPS-EG, CORN (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR CITRUS CROPS (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR FOLIAR & SEED TREATMENT (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR PEST CONTROL OPERATORS (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR PINEAPPLES & CEREAL (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR VEGETABLES & SUGAR BEETS (FORMER USE) INSECTICIDE FOR CERTAIN NUT CROPS (FORMER USE) USUALLY ADDED TO SOIL TO CONTROL WHITE GRUBS, ROOT WEEVILS, & WIREWORMS TO PREVENT GIRDLING OF SEEDLINGS BY REPRODUCTION OF WEEVILS. MATERIAL IS EITHER SPRAYED ON PLANTED TREES OR TREES ARE DIPPED IN WATER EMULSIONS OF ACTIVE CMPD PRIOR TO PLANTING. SRP: FORMER USE IN USA VET: AS PREMISE SPRAY AGAINST FLIES, FLEAS, MOSQUITOES, & THEIR LARVAE BY USE OF RESIDUAL SPRAYS (0.125-0.5%). SRP: FORMER USE Formulation of pesticides supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, dust or granular material; Used formerly as an insecticide in seed treatment, preplanting soil application, dipping tops of plants and roots for control of insects, flies and mosquitoes; Used formerly on household plots and on fruits; Used formerly in termite control (dispensed in caulking guns). The only commercial use of heptachlor products still permitted is for fire ant control in power transformers. VET: AS PREMISE SPRAY AGAINST FLIES, FLEAS, MOSQUITOES, & THEIR LARVAE BY USE OF RESIDUAL SPRAYS (0.125-0.5%). SRP: FORMER USE
Consumption Patterns INSECTICIDE FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL USES, 100% (1983)
Apparent Color WHITE ; White to light tan waxy solid
Odor CAMPHOR-LIKE ODOR
Boiling Point 145 DEG C @ 1.5 MM HG
Melting Point 95-96 DEG C
Molecular Weight 373.35
Density 1.57 @ 9 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 0.02 PPM
Sensitivity Data Eye Irritant.
Environmental Impact The use of heptachlor in the United States was restricted to the control of fire ants in power transformers and its release to the environment may result from this use and past extensive pesticidal use prior to 1983. Release of heptachlor to soil surfaces will result in volatilization from the surface, especially in moist soils, but volatilization of heptachlor incorporated into soil will be slower. Hydrolysis in moist soils is expected to be significant. In soil, heptachlor will degrade to 1-hydroxychlordene, heptachlor epoxide and an unidentified metabolite less hydrophilic than heptachlor epoxide. Biodegradation may also be significant. Heptachlor is expected to adsorb strongly to soil and, therefore, to resist leaching to groundwater. Release of heptachlor to water will result in hydrolysis to 1-hydroxychlordene (half-life of about 1 day) and volatilization. Adsorption to sediments may occur. Biodegradation of heptachlor may occur, but is expected to be slow compared to hydrolysis. Bioconcentration of heptachlor may be significant. Direct and photosensitized photolysis may occur but are not expected to occur at a rate comparable to that of hydrolysis. In air, vapor phase heptachlor will react with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of 36 min. Direct photolysis may also occur.
Environmental Fate AQUATIC FATE: Hepatochlor may undergo significant photolysis in ambient media, since laboratory studies have demonstrated photolytic decomposition in 1 wk and complete decomposition in 2 wk. The singlet oxygen reaction with heptachlor in aquatic media may be significant, with the half-life of heptachlor est to be about 1 day. The hydrolysis of heptachlor in aquatic media est hydrolytic half-life in the range of 1-3 days. TERRESTRIAL FATE: LABELED HEPTACHLOR WAS APPLIED TO SOIL. ANALYSES INDICATED PRESENCE OF 1-HYDROXYCHLORDENE, HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE & METABOLITE LESS HYDROPHILIC THAN HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE. TERRESTRIAL FATE: The half-life of heptachlor in soil was calculated to range from 0.4-0.8 years based on data collected in Mississippi, New Jersey and Beltsville, MD . The mean disappearance rates of heptachlor from soil ranged from 5.25-79.5%/yr, depending upon the soil type and mode of application of the insecticide . The highest rate was observed in sandy soil following an application of a granule formulation. Soil incorporation also led to rapid disappearance rates in all soil types . A water emulsion of heptachlor was applied to soils from six states and quantified initially and after 12 months. The results were AR - 746-117 ppm, FL - 841-93 ppm, HI - 817-77 ppm, MD - 775- 122 ppm, MO - 758-103 ppm, OR - 741-156 ppm, and SC - 774-62 ppm . In soil, heptachlor will degrade to 1-hydroxychlordene, heptachlor epoxide and an unidentified metabolite less hydrophilic than heptachlor epoxide . Heptachlor is expected to adsorb strongly to soil and, therefore, resist leaching to groundwater. Volatilization from soil surfaces, especially wet ones, will be significant. Heptachlor incorporated into the soil will resist volatilization. Hydrolysis of heptachlor in moist soils is expected to be significant. Biodegradation may be important, especially under anaerobic conditions. AQUATIC FATE: A river die away laboratory test was conducted with heptachlor in raw water from the Little Miami River in Ohio. The river receives domestic and industrial wastes and farm runoff. After 1 week, 75% of the initial heptachlor had disappeared and the heptachlor was 100% degraded after 2 weeks . Chemical hydrolysis is expected to be the predominant fate of heptachlor in water, with half-lives of 23.1 h in unbuffered water and 4.48 days at pH 7 in 99:1 water:ethanol . Bioconcentration in fish may also occur and volatilization of unadsorbed heptachlor may be significant. Due to its high soil/sorption, coefficient, heptachlor is expected to adsorb to sediments. Biodegradation may also be significant, but is expected to occur relatively slowly compared to hydrolysis. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon the vapor pressure, heptachlor is expected to exist almost entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air . In the atmosphere, vapor phase reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone may be important fate processes. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of heptachlor with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated to be 6.57X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C, which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 6 hours at an atmospheric concn of 5X10 5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm . The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of heptachlor with ozone has been estimated to be less than 2.0X10-16 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 1.5 hours at an atmospheric concn of 7X10 11 molecules per cu cm . In addition, heptachlor may directly photolyze in the vapor phase. The low water solubility and the short atmospheric residence time of heptachlor indicates that physical removal from air by wet deposition (rainfall and dissolution in clouds, etc.) is of limited importance.
Drinking Water Impact DURING THE 1978 IRRIGATION SEASON, 14 GROUND WATER SAMPLES WERE COLLECTED IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REGION OF NEBRASKA, AN AREA KNOWN TO HAVE HIGH NITRATE-NITROGEN LEVELS, & ANALYZED FOR PRESENCE OF 13 RESIDUES. LEVELS OF ORGANOCHLORINE INSECTICIDES HEPTACHLOR & ITS DERIVATIVE, HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE, WERE ALL BELOW THE DETECTABLE LIMITS OF 0.005-0.010 UG/L. HEPTACHLOR HAS RARELY BEEN FOUND IN SURFACE WATERS, & THEN ONLY IN SMALL QUANTITIES: 5-30 PART PER TRILLION FOR HEPTACHLOR &/OR 5-40 PART PER TRILLION FOR HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE. Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide have been detected in private drinking wells at concentrations of < 0.02 ug/l. GROUNDWATER: New Jersey - 1,075 samples, 21.2% pos, 1.0 ppb max . Heptachlor was detected but not quantified in groundwater samples in New Jersey , California and from northern Italy . According to the EPA's Pesticides in Groundwater Database, hepatachlor was detected in the groundwater supplies of the states of Kansas and Idaho at median concns of 0.03 and 0.02 ppb, respectively . During the 1978 irrigation season, 14 groundwater samples were collected in the central plateau region of Nebraska, an area known to have high nitrate-nitrogen levels, and were analzyed for her presence of 13 residues. Levels of the organochlorine insecticide, heptachlor and its derivative, heptachlor epoxide, were all below the detectable limits of 0,005 to 0.010 ug/L(6). SURFACE WATER: Of the 4650 stations reporting heptachlor in ambient water in EPA's STORET database, 34.0% contained detectable levels of the chemical with a median concn of 0.001 ug/l . Heptachlor was listed as a contaminant of the Great Lakes including Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior . In 1980, heptachlor was detected in the waters of Lake Pontchartrain Inner Harbor Navigation Canal at a concn of 0.6 ng/l at an ebb tide of 1.5 m and at concns ranging from 9.1 to 9.3 ng/l at flood tides of 1.5 to 10 m . Heptachlor was detected with a 21.4% frequency of occurrence for 604 samples of surface waters from New Jersey collected from 1977 to 1979 . SURFACE WATER: Heptachlor was detected in Mississippi River water at Louisiana at concns ranging from undetected levels to 2.4 ng/l for the summer to winter of 1974 . Mediterranean waters off the coast of Morocco contained heptachlor at concns ranging from trace quantities to

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