SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 79345
CASRN 79-34-5
Synonyms1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-
sym-Tetrachloroethane
Analytical Methods EPA Method 502.2
EPA Method 524.2
EPA Method 601
EPA Method 624
EPA Method 8010
EPA Method 8021
EPA Method 8260
Molecular FormulaC2H2Cl4

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use NONFLAMMABLE SOLVENT FOR FATS, OILS, WAXES, RESINS, CELLULOSE ACETATE, COPAL, PHOSPHORUS, SULFUR, RUBBER; SOLVENT IN CERTAIN TYPES OF FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTIONS, PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE CONDENSATIONS; IN MFR OF PAINTS, VARNISH, RUST REMOVERS; IN SOIL STERILIZATION AND WEED KILLER, INSECTICIDE FORMULATIONS; IN DETERMINATION OF THEOBROMINE IN CACAO; AS IMMERSION FLUID IN CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; IN THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY TO PRODUCE PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GI TRACT, LIVER & KIDNEYS. INTERMEDIATE IN MFR OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE & OTHER CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS HAVING TWO CARBON ATOMS. FOR CLEANSING & DEGREASING METALS; PAINT REMOVERS, LACQUERS, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM; ALCOHOL DENATURANT . CHEM INT FOR TRICHLOROETHYLENE & TETRACHLOROETHYLENE; CHEM INT FOR 1,2- & 1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE; SOLVENT EG, FOR POLYESTERS & EXTRACTIONS; MOTH-PROOFING AGENT FOR TEXTILES. Use in manufacture of cyanogen chloride, polymers, and tetrachloro-alkylphenol; use as a solvent in preparation of adhesives. Bleach manufacturing Used in cement, lacquers; in manufacture of artificial silk, and artificial pearls. Recently, it has also been used in the estimation of water content in tobacco and many drugs, and as a solvent for chromium chloride impregnation of furs.
Apparent Color COLORLESS PURE TO PALE-YELLOW LIQUID TECHNICAL ; HEAVY, MOBILE LIQUID
Odor SWEETISH, SUFFOCATING, CHLOROFORM-LIKE ODOR ; Pungent odor
Boiling Point 146.5 DEG C
Melting Point -44 deg C
Molecular Weight 167.86
Density 1.58658 @ 25 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration ODOR THRESHOLD OF LESS THAN 3 PPM. Detection Limit: 0.5 mg/l (water) Low: 21.0 mg/cu m; High: 35.0 mg/cu m.
Sensitivity Data Irritating to eyes, nose, and throat. Contact with eyes causes irritation and lacrimation.
Environmental Impact Most of the released 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane enters the atmosphere where it is extremely stable (half-life >2 years). Some of the chemical will eventually diffuse into the stratosphere where it will rapidly photodegrade. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane which is released into water will primarily be lost by volatilization in a matter of days to weeks. The volatilization half-lives from a model river and a model pond, the latter considers the effect of adsorption have been estimated to be 6.3 hr and 3.5 days, respectively. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane is not expected to partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A measured Koc of 79 in a silt loam, indicates 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane will be highly mobile in soil. When disposed of on soil, part of the 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane may leach into groundwater. There is evidence that 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane slowly biodegrades. A product of biodegradation under anaerobic conditions is 1,1,2-trichloroethane, a chemical which is resistant to further biodegradation. Under alkaline conditions, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane may be expected to hydrolyze. A measured aqueous hydrolysis rate constant of KB = 2.3X107 M-1 yr-1 at pH of 9 and 25 deg C corresponds to a half-lives of 1.1 and 111 days at pH of 9 and 7. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane will not be expected to bioconcentrate into the food chain. The major source of human exposure is from ambient air near industrial sources.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane may undergo hydrolysis in alkaline soil. A measured aqueous hydrolysis rate constant of KB = 2.3X107 M-1 yr-1 at pH of 9 and 25 deg C corresponds to a half-lives of 1.1 and 111 days of pH of 9 and 7 . A measured Koc of 79 in a silt loam , suggests 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane will be highly mobile in soil and therefore can leach into groundwater. A calculated Henry's Law constant of 4.55X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane from moist soils should be important. AQUATIC FATE: Under alkaline conditions, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane may be expected to hydrolyze. A measured aqueous hydrolysis rate constant of KB = 2.3X107 M-1 yr-1 at pH of 9 and 25 deg C corresponds to half-lives of 1.1 and 111 days at pH of 9 and 7 . The primary loss of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the aquatic compartment will be by evaporation which should have a half-life of days to weeks depending on the body of water in question. Based upon a calculated Henry's Law constant of 1.55X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 6.3 hr(2,SRC). Adsorption to sediment would not be a significant loss mechanism. The volatilization half-life from a model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be about 3.5 days(3,SRC). Some biodegradation may occur in situations where evaporation is extremely slow and the body of water is rich in microorganisms such as a eutrophic lake. Biodegradation in groundwater is possible but the biodegradation product 1,1,2-trichloroethane is resistant to further biodegradation. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 6.1 mm Hg at 25 deg C , 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air . 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane is practically inert in the troposphere with a half-life exceeding 800 days. As such it will be transported long distances with some of it returning to earth in rain. It can be expected to diffuse slowly into the stratosphere where it will degrade rapidly by photodissociation. With continual release, one might expect to find increasing atmospheric concentration.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Detected in 2 of 3 investigations of US drinking water(1,3,4). In treated water from 30 Canadian treatment facilities - 1 site positive (1 ppb) in Aug/Sept, not detected in Nov/Dec . Also found in 1 of 13 drinking water wells in Tacona,WA . 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was listed as a contaminant found in drinking water(6) for a survey of US cities including Pomona, Escondido, Lake Tahoe and Orange Co, CA and Dallas, Washington, DC, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, Ottumwa, IA, and Seattle(7). SURFACE WATER: Detected not quantified - River Glatt, Switzerland . Trace to <1 ppb measured samples from the Ohio River(3,4); 1 ppb detected in the Detroit R . Trace to 1.9 ppb in the Schuylkill R at Philadelphia, PA ; 67 of 608 samples pos in representative New Jersey surface waters, max of 3 ppb measured . Not detected in raw water for 30 Canadian potable drinking facilities in Aug/Sept and only one facility had detectable amounts in Nov/Dec - 12 ppb(6). Only 12 of 204 sites near heavily industralized areas across US were positive, positive sites ranged from 1 to 9 ppb(7). 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane is listed as a contaminant of Great Lakes Erie, Ontario, and the St Lawrence River(8). GROUNDWATER: New Jersey - 64 of 1072 representative groundwater sources positive, 2.7 max . Detected, not quantified, in 10 most polluted wells from a 408 well survey in New Jersey, with the wells being located under urban land use areas . Groundwater samples from near the Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane . Six of 7 ground water sample from near the "Valley of Drums", KY contained 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at a concn of 6.4, 18, 12, 5.7, 0.2 and 6.2 ug/L . EFFL: Only the metal finishing industry has mean water effluents exceeding 20 ppb, the mean effluent level of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane for this industry is 290 ppb and the maximum observed level is 570 ppb . Detected in samples of effluents from 3 US chemical plants and a US sewage treatment plant . Unidentified isomer from industrial effluent South Clair R Sarnia, Ontario detected at 5 sites . The biotreatment and final effluents of a Class A oil refinery contained 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at a concn of greater than 50 and less than 10 ug/L, respectively . Wastewater from the gaseous diffusion plant operated by Union Carbide at Oak Ridge, TN contained 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the volatile fraction . Leachate from Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane(6). An unspecified isomer of tetrachloroethane was identified as a product of coal combustion(7).

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