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Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 8001352
CASRN 8001-35-2
SynonymsToxaphene
Camphechlor
Camphene, octachloro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 505
EPA Method 508
EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 608
EPA Method 617
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8081
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaApproxoverllmoleculrformulofC10H10Cl8

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use IT IS A NON-SYSTEMIC CONTACT & STOMACH INSECTICIDE WITH SOME ACARICIDAL ACTION INSECTICIDE FOR COTTON, PEAS, SOYBEANS, PEANUT, CORN, WHEAT & OTHER SMALL GRAINS, EG, RICE (FORMER USE), ALFALFA, SORGHUM (FORMER USE), CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, SWINE, & HORSES (FORMER USE), FRUITS & NUTS (FORMER USE), ORNAMENTALS, FORAGE, & TURF (FORMER USE), & CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL PREMISES (FORMER USE) As dip to control scabies on cattle & sheep; minor use: for armyworms, cutworms, & grasshoppers; for mealybug & pineapple gummosis moth control on pineapples & weevil control on bananas CONTROL OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA IN SOYBEANS; USED FOR CONTROL OF ANIMAL ECTOPARASITES Conditional and restricted use as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treatment of: cranberries, strawberries, apples, pears, quinces, nectarines, peaches, bananas, pineapple, eggplant, peppers, pimentos, tomatoes, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, spinach, lettuce (head and leaf), parsnips, rutabagas, beans (lima, green and snap), corn (sweet), cowpeas, okra, alfalfa, barley, oats, rice, rye, wheat, celery, cotton, horseradish, peanuts, peas, sunflowers, soybeans, ornamental plants, birch, elm, hickory, maple oak, and noncrop areas. Also used in seed crop foliar treatment of clover and trefoil; in soil treatment of corn; in back rubber of beef cattle; in animal treatment of goats, sheep, beef cattle, and hogs; and aerial application and tank mixtures. Toxaphene 8 Emulsifiable Insecticide Conditional and restricted use as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treatment of small grains, corn, and cotton. Also used in aerial application. Rigo toxaphene 8, For use only under special emergency exemptions Restricted use as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treatment of barley, oats, rice, wheat, cotton, and soybeans and in aerial application. Unclassified use as an insecticide and as a miticide in manufacturing only. Conditional and unclassified uses as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treatment of cranberries, strawberries, grapefruit, kumquat, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, tangerines, apples, pears, eggplant, tomatoes, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, spinach, carrots, onions, parsnips, rutabagas, beans (dry, lima, green), barley, rice, rye, celery, corn, cotton, soybeans, wheat, oak, and alfalfa (seed crop). Also used in aerial application. Conditional and restricted use as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treatment of bananas and pineapple; in animal treatment of sheep and beef cattle; and in aerial application. Used as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treatment of peanuts, soybeans, and cotton; also, used in aerial application and tank mixtures. Hercules Toxaphene 72% Emulsifiable Concentrate Used as an insecticide and as a miticide in foliar treartment of barley, oats, sunflowers, and wheat; also, used in aerial application. Red Top Toxaphene 8 Spray
Consumption Patterns INSECTICIDE FOR COTTON, 50%; VEGETABLES, 17%; LIVESTOCK & POULTRY, 17%; SOYBEANS, 12%; ALFALFA, 2%; WHEAT, 2%; SORGHUM, 1% (1982) (1982) 5.45X10 9 G (CONSUMPTION)
Apparent Color YELLOW WAXY SOLID; Amber waxy solid
Odor PLEASANT PINEY ODOR; MILD ODOR OF CHLORINE & CAMPHOR; Mild, turpentine-like odor
Melting Point 65-90 DEG C
Molecular Weight 414 (avg)
Density 1.65 AT 25 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 1.40x10-1 ppm (Medium: water; purity: not specified) Threshold for toxaphene is 2.3660 mg/cu m.
Sensitivity Data Short term exposure: Eyes: Can cause irritation.
Environmental Impact Toxaphene is a mixture of more than 175-179 components produced by chlorination of camphene. It has been used extensively as a pesticide on cotton as well as other crops. Toxaphene is very persistent. When released to soil it will persist for long periods (1 to 14 yr), is not expected to leach to groundwater or be removed significantly by runoff unless adsorbed to clay particles which are removed by runoff. Biodegradation may be enhanced by anaerobic conditions such as flooded soil. Evaporation from soils and surfaces will be a significant process for toxaphene. Toxaphene released in water will not appreciably hydrolyze, photolyze, or significantly biodegrade. It will strongly sorb to sediments and bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. In a model, an estimated half-life of approximately 6 hr for evaporation of toxaphene from a river 1 meter deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec indicates evaporation will be significant. Field studies have shown it to be detoxified rapidly in shallow and very slowly in deep bodies of water. Toxaphene may undergo very slow direct photolysis in the atmosphere. However vapor phase reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals should be more important fate process (estimated half-life 4-5 days). Toxaphene can be transported long distances in the air (1200 km) probably adsorbed to particular matter. Monitoring data demonstrates that toxaphene is a contaminant in some air, water, sediment, soil, fish and other aquatic organisms, foods and birds. Human exposure appears to come mostly from food or occupational exposure.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: TOXAPHENE IN ANOXIC SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS WAS DEGRADED WITHIN FEW DAYS TO COMPOUNDS HAVING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION TIMES THAT WERE SHORTER THAN THOSE OF STD TOXAPHENE COMPONENTS. THIS BREAKDOWN OCCURRED IN STERILE AS WELL AS UNSTERILE SEDIMENTS, & ALSO IN SAND-FE(II)/FE(III) SYSTEMS. 3757] TERRESTRIAL FATE: Toxaphene released to soils will persist for long periods of time (the half-life values from approximately 1 yr to 14 yr reported). Biodegradation may be enhanced somewhat in flooded soils or under anaerobic conditions. Its low water solubility and strong adsorption to soil makes leaching into groundwater unlikely. It will be subject to loss by evaporation but will not hydrolyze or be removed significantly by runoff unless carried off adsorbed to clay particles. SRP: Toxaphene has some water solubility. TERRESTRIAL FATE: THE STUDY OF THE MOVEMENT & DISTRIBUTION OF TOXAPHENE IN ANAEROBIC SALINE MARSH SOILS ALLOWED 4 CONCLUSIONS. TOXAPHENE ACCUMULATION IN SALINE MARSH SOILS WAS ONLY AT A SIGNIFICANT LEVEL WHERE SUBSTRATES WERE FREQUENTLY SUBJECTED TO TIDAL FLOODING BY CONTAMINATED WATER. AS THE DEPTH OF THE SOIL INCR, THE CONCN OF TOXAPHENE CONTAMINANT DECREASED. ORGANISMS LIVING IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE SOIL MAY BE SUBJECTED TO VARYING CONCENTRATIONS AS 50-FOLD RANGE. TOXAPHENE DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MARSH SOILS ARE FUNCTIONS OF BASIPETAL & ACROPETAL PLANT TRANSLOCATION, AS WELL AS LEACHING, DEGRADATION & PESTICIDE CONCN AT TIME OF DEPOSITION. TERRESTRIAL FATE: THE PERSISTENCE OF TOXAPHENE IN SOIL IS SIMILAR TO THAT OF ALDRIN, DIELDRIN, DILAN, OR CHLORDANE. INVESTIGATORS FOUND 45% IN SOIL 20 YR AFTER (SOIL) TREATMENT APPROX 22% OF TOXAPHENE WAS RECOVERED 10 YR AFTER APPLICATION TO SOIL; 90-95% OF TOXAPHENE RESIDUES WERE IN 30 CM LAYER. HALF-LIFE IN SOIL 10 YR AQUATIC FATE: Seasonal variation in the degradation of pesticides, reflecting the changes in both biotic & abiotic factors, has been reported. Degradation of toxaphene was high during the summer temperatures, & it remained negligible during the freezing, winter conditions in Midway Lake, Saskatchewan. AQUATIC FATE: Toxaphene released to water systems will not be likely to significantly hydrolyze, photolyze or significantly biodegrade. It will strongly sorb to sediments and bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. It will be subject to evaporation with an estimated half-life of approximately 6 hr for evaporation from a river 1 meter deep flowing at 1 m/s with a wind velocity of 3 m/s. Field studies have shown that when toxaphene is used as a pesticide the availability diminishes rapidly in shallow lakes(1,2) and that adsorption to sediments is a major mechanism of this process . Detoxification occurred in 1 yr in a shallow lake with concn in water 0.6 ppb while the concn remained at 1.2 ppb after 5 yrs in a deep lake . SRP: Toxic effects diminish or toxaphene becomes unavailable. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Toxaphene in the atmosphere is not readily degraded by direct photolysis. Half-life of approximately 4-5 days for reaction of toxaphene components with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals have been estimated. Toxaphene has been shown to be transported long distances in the air (1200 km) . AQUATIC FATE: THREE NONPOINT SOURCE RUNOFF MODELS WERE TESTED & COMPARED FOR THEIR ABILITIES TO PREDICT MOVEMENT OF TOXAPHENE FROM 15.6-HA WATERSHED IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA (USA) REGION & A SMALLER WATERSHED IN SOUTHERN PIEDMONT. TESTING EXCERCISES INDICATED THAT ALL THREE MODELS ACCURATELY REPRODUCED FIELD DATA.
Drinking Water Impact RAINFALL WAS COLLECTED WITHIN NORTH INLET ESTUARY, A HIGH SALINITY SALT MARSH NEAR GEORGETOWN, SC. TOXAPHENE LEVELS IN RAIN INCR FROM NEAR BACKGROUND LEVELS IN LATE SPRING TO MORE THAN 150 NG/KG IN MIDSUMMER. THESE HIGH LEVELS CORRELATED WITH INCR USAGE DURING THESE MONTHS. MEAN TOXAPHENE CONTENT OF 60 RAIN SAMPLES WAS 45 NG/KG. DRINKING WATER: Treated water, Flint Creek, AL 1959-1963: range - 5 to 410 parts per trillion; range of means - 18 to 210 parts per trillion, avg of means - 72 parts per trillion for toxaphene . SURFACE WATER: USA ambient water 1980-82, 7325, STORET data points, 32% pos, median - 0.05 ppb . USA, 1964-68 - not detected in 529 samples from approximately 100 sampling stations . Western USA streams, 1968-71 - not detected at 20 sites . Southern FL, 1968-72 - not detected in 146 samples . Tennessee R, AL, 1950 - detected, not quantified . Delaware and Raritan Canal, NJ, 1979-80 - not detected in 5 samplings at 37 points(6). SEAWATER: Galveston Bay and area bays, TX, Sept-Oct, 1964 - not detected in 9 samples from 9 stations . RAINWATER: It was detected in 5/8 samples of rainwater from Chesapeake Bay region/, at levels ranging from 44-280 ng/l. GROUND WATER: Toxaphene was detected, not quantified in one or more California municipal drinking water wells . EFFL: USA industrial effluents 1980-82, 708 STORET data points, 3.4% pos, median <0.2 ppb . Runoff from farm, 1974-75, southern USA, total loss March, 1974-Feb, 1975 - 96.53 g/ha; range 0.14 (March), 26.64 g/ha (May)

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